DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Effects of Level and Degradability of Dietary Protein on Ruminal Fermentation and Concentrations of Soluble Non-ammonia Nitrogen in Ruminal and Omasal Digesta of Hanwoo Steers

  • Oh, Young-Kyoon (National Institute of Animal Science) ;
  • Kim, Jeong-Hoon (Animal Resources Research Center, College of Animal Bioscience & Technology, Konkuk University) ;
  • Kim, Kyoung-Hoon (National Institute of Animal Science) ;
  • Choi, Chang-Won (National Institute of Animal Science) ;
  • Kang, Su-Won (National Institute of Animal Science) ;
  • Nam, In-Sik (National Institute of Animal Science) ;
  • Kim, Do-Hyung (National Institute of Animal Science) ;
  • Song, Man-Kang (Department of Animal Science, Chungbuk National University) ;
  • Kim, Chang-Won (Animal Resources Research Center, College of Animal Bioscience & Technology, Konkuk University) ;
  • Park, Keun-Kyu (Animal Resources Research Center, College of Animal Bioscience & Technology, Konkuk University)
  • Received : 2007.06.19
  • Accepted : 2007.11.11
  • Published : 2008.03.01

Abstract

Four ruminally fistulated Hanwoo steers were used to determine the effects of level and degradability of dietary protein on ruminal fermentation, blood metabolites and concentration of soluble non-ammonia nitrogen (SNAN) in ruminal (RD) and omasal digesta (OD). Experiments were conducted in a $4{\times}4$ Latin square design with a $2{\times}2$ factorial arrangement of treatments. Factors were protein supplements with two ruminal crude protein (CP) degradabilities, corn gluten meal (CGM) that was low in degradability (rumen-degraded protein (RDP), 23.4% CP) or soybean meal (SBM) that was high in degradability (RDP, 62.1% CP), and two feeding levels of CP (12.2 or 15.9% dry matter). Ruminal fermentation rates and plasma metabolite concentrations were determined from the RD collected at 2-h intervals and from the blood taken by jugular puncture, respectively. The SNAN fractions (free amino acid, peptide and soluble protein) in RD and OD collected at 2-h intervals were assessed by ninhydrin assay. Mean ruminal ammonia concentrations were 40.5, 74.8, 103.4 and 127.0 mg/L for low CGM, high CGM, low SBM and high SBM, respectively, with statistically significant differences (p<0.01 for CP level and p<0.001 for CP degradability). Blood urea nitrogen concentrations were increased by high CP level (p<0.001) but unaffected by CP degradability. There was a significant (p<0.05) interaction between level and degradability of CP on blood albumin concentrations. Albumin was decreased to a greater extent by increasing degradability of low CP diets (0.26 g/dl) compared with high CP diets (0.02 g/dl). Concentrations of each SNAN fraction in RD (p<0.01) and OD (p<0.05) for high CP diets were higher than those for low CP diets, except for peptides but concentrations of the sum of peptide and free amino acid in RD and OD were significantly higher (p<0.05) for high CP diets than for low CP diets. Soybean meal diets increased free amino acid and peptide concentrations in both RD (p<0.01) and OD (p<0.05) compared to CGM diets. High level and greater degradability of CP increased (p<0.001) mean concentrations of total SNAN in RD and OD. These results suggest that RDP contents, increased by higher level and degradability of dietary protein, may increase release of free amino acids, peptides and soluble proteins in the rumen and omasum from ruminal degradation and solubilization of dietary proteins. Because SNAN in OD indicates the terminal product of ruminal metabolism, increasing CP level and degradability appears to increase the amount of intestine-available nitrogen in the liquid phase.

Keywords

Soluble Non-ammonia Nitrogen;Ruminal Digesta;Omasal Digesta;Dietary Protein;Ruminal Fermentation

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry

References

  1. Choi, C. W., A. Vanhatalo and P. Huhtanen. 2002c. Concentration and estimated flow of soluble non-ammonia nitrogen entering the omasum of dairy cows as influenced by different protein supplements. Agric. Food Sci. Finl. 11:79-91.
  2. Choi, C. W., S. Ahvenjarvi, A. Vanhatalo, V. Toivonen and P. Huhtanen. 2002a. Quantitation of the flow of soluble nonammonia nitrogen entering the omasal canal of dairy cows fed silage based diets. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 96:203-220. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(01)00348-0
  3. Choi, C. W. and C. B. Choi. 2003. Flow of soluble non-ammonia nitrogen in the liquid phase of digesta entering the omasum of dairy cows given grass silage based diets. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 16:1460-1468. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2003.1460
  4. Chen, G., C. J. Sniffen and J. B. Russell. 1987b. Concentration and estimated flow of peptides from the rumen of dairy cattle: Effects of protein quantity, protein solubility and feeding frequency. J. Dairy Sci. 70:983-992 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(87)80103-0
  5. Chaney, A. L. and E. P. Markbach. 1962. Modified reagents for determination of urea and ammonia. Clin. Biochem. 8:130-137.
  6. Chanjula, P., M. Wanapat, C. Wachirapakorn and P. Rowlinson. 2004. Effect of synchronizing starch sources and protein (NPN) in the rumen on feed intake, rumen microbial fermentation, nutrient utilization and performance of lactating dairy cows. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 17:1400-1410. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2004.1400
  7. Chen, G., J. B. Russell and C. J. Sniffen. 1987a. A procedure for measuring peptides in rumen fluid and evidence that peptide uptake can be a rate-limiting step in ruminal protein degradation. J. Dairy Sci. 70:1211-1219. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(87)80133-9
  8. Broderick, G. A., L. D. Satter and A. E. Harper. 1974. Use of plasma amino acid concentration to identify limiting amino acids for milk production. J. Dairy Sci. 57:1015-1023. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(74)85002-2
  9. Broderick, G. A. and R. J. Wallace. 1988. Effects of dietary nitrogen source on concentrations of ammonia, free amino acids and fluorescamine-reactive peptides in the sheep rumen. J. Anim. Sci. 66:2233-2238 https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1988.6692233x
  10. Ahvenjarvi, S., A. Vanhatalo, P. Huhtanen and T. Varvikko. 2000. Determination of reticulo-rumen and whole-stomach digestion in lactating cows by omasal canal or duodenal sampling. Br. J. Nutr. 83:67-77.
  11. AOAC. 1990. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, Virginia, USA.
  12. Doumas, B. T., W. Watson and H. G. Biggs. 1971. Albumin standards and the measurement of serum albumin with bromocresol green. Clin. Chim. Acta. 31:87-96. https://doi.org/10.1016/0009-8981(71)90365-2
  13. Erwin, E. S., G. T. Marco and E. M. Emery. 1961. Volatile fatty acid analysis of blood and rumen fluid by gas chromatography. J. Dairy Sci. 44:1768-1771. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(61)89956-6
  14. Choi, C. W., A. Vanhatalo and P. Huhtanen. 2003. Effects of type of grass silage and level of concentrate on the flow soluble non-ammonia nitrogen entering the omasum of dairy cows. J. Anim. Feed Sci. 12:3-22. https://doi.org/10.22358/jafs/67639/2003
  15. Lie, S. 1973. The EBC-ninhydrin method for determination of free alpha amino nitrogen. J. Inst. Brew. 79:37-41. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2050-0416.1973.tb03495.x
  16. Licitra, G., T. M. Hernandez and P. J. Van Soest. 1996. Standardization of procedures for nitrogen fractionation of ruminant feeds. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 57:347-358. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(95)00837-3
  17. Kang-Meznarich, J. H. and G. A. Broderick. 1980. Effects of incremental urea supplementation on ruminal ammonia concentration and bacterial protein formation. J. Anim. Sci. 51:422-431. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1980.512422x
  18. Nikokkyris, P. and K. Jandylis. 1991. Effects of gossypol content of cottonseed cake on blood constituents in growing-fattening lambs. J. Dairy Sci. 74:4305-4313. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78625-6
  19. Moscardini, S., T. C. Wright, P. H. Luimes, B. W. McBride and P. Susmel. 1998. Effects of rumen-undegraded protein and feed intake on purine derivative and urea nitrogen: Comparison with predictions from the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System. J. Dairy Sci. 81:2421-2429. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(98)70133-X
  20. Littell, R. C., P. R. Henry and C. B. Ammerman. 1998. Statistical analysis of repeated measures data using SAS procedures. J. Anim. Sci. 76:1216-1231. https://doi.org/10.2527/1998.7641216x
  21. Robinson, P. H., D. M. Veira and M. Ivan. 1998. Influence of supplemental protein quality on rumen fermentation, rumen microbial yield, forestomach digestion and intestinal amino acid flow in late lactation Holstein cows. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 78:95-105. https://doi.org/10.4141/A97-054
  22. Rivera, J. D., S. E. Bachman, M. E. Hubbert, M. E. Branine, R. L. Horst, S. N. Williams and M. L. Galyean. 2005. Serum and tissue concentrations of vitamin D metabolites in beef heifers after buccal dosing of 25-hydroxyvitamin $D_{3}$. J. Dairy Sci. 88:1364-1369. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(05)72803-4
  23. Robinson, P. H. and R. E. McQueen. 1994. Influence of supplemental protein source and feeding frequency on rumen fermentation and performance in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 77:1340-1353. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(94)77073-9
  24. Rocch-Ramel, F. 1967. An enzymic and fluorophotometric method for estimating urea concentrations in nanoliter specimens. Anal. Biochem. 21:372-381. https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-2697(67)90312-0
  25. Wanapat, M. and S. Khampa. 2007. Effect of levels of supplementation of concentrate containing high levels of cassava chip on rumen ecology, microbial N supply and digestibility of nutrients in beef cattle. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 20:75-81.
  26. Wolin, M. J., T. L. Mikker and C. S. Steward. 1997. Microbemicrobe interactions. In: The rumen microbial ecosystem (Ed. P. N. Hobson and C. S. Steward). Blackie Academic and Professional, London, UK. pp. 467-491.
  27. Volden, H., W. Velle, O. M. Harstad, A. Aulie and O. V. Sjaastad. 1998. Apparent ruminal degradation and rumen escape of lysine, methionine and threonine administered intraruminally in mixtures to high-yielding cows. J. Anim. Sci. 76:1232-1240. https://doi.org/10.2527/1998.7641232x
  28. Van Soest, P. J., J. B. Robertson and B. A. Lewis. 1991. Methods of dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74:3583-3597. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78551-2
  29. Tamminga, S. 1979. Protein degradation in the forestomachs of ruminants. J. Anim. Sci. 49:1615-1627 https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1979.4961615x
  30. Stewart, C. S. 1977. Factors affecting the cellulolytic activity of rumen contents. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 33:497-502.
  31. SAS Institute, 2002. $SAS^{\circledR}$ User's guide: Statistics. Version 9.1 Edition. Statistical Analysis Systems Institute Inc., Cary, NC.
  32. Satter, L. D. and L. L. Slyter. 1974. Effect of ammonia concentration on rumen microbial protein production in vitro. Br. J. Nutr. 32:199-208 https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19740073
  33. Rosen, H. 1957. A modified ninhydrin colorimetric analysis for amino acids. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 67:10-15. https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-9861(57)90241-2
  34. Zerbini, E., C. E. Polan and J. H. Herbein. 1988. Effect of dietary soybean meal and fish meal on protein digesta flow in Holstein cows during early and midlactation. J. Dairy Sci. 71:1248- 1258. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(88)79680-0
  35. Wright, D. E. and R. E. Hungate. 1967. Amino acid concentrations in rumen fluid. Appl. Microbiol. 15:148-151.
  36. Wright, T. C., S. Moscardini, P. H. Luimes, P. Susmel and B. W. McBride. 1998. Effects of rumen-undegradable protein and feed intake on nitrogen balance and milk protein production in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 81:784-793. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(98)75635-8
  37. Choi, C. W., A. Vanhatalo, S. Ahvenjarvi and P. Huhtanen. 2002b. Effects of several protein supplements on flow of soluble nonammonia nitrogen from the forestomach and milk production in dairy cows. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 102:15-33. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(02)00251-1
  38. Flack, C. P. and J. W. Woollen. 1984. Prevention of interference by dextran with biuret-type assay of serum proteins. Clin. Chem. 30:559-561.
  39. Hiltner, P. and B. A. Dehority. 1983. Effect of soluble carbohydrates on digestion of cellulose by pure cultures of rumen bacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 46:642-648.
  40. Huhtanen, P., P. G. Brotz and L. D. Satter. 1997. Omasal sampling technique for assessing fermentative digestion in the forestomach of dairy cows. J. Anim. Sci. 77:1380-1392
  41. Husdan, H. and A. Rapoport. 1968. Estimation of creatinine by the Jaffe reaction: A comparison of three methods. Clin. Chem. 14:222-238
  42. Klusmeyer, T. H., R. D. McCarthy, Jr. and J. H. Clark. 1990. Effects of source and amount of protein on ruminal fermentation and passage of nutrients to the small intestine of lactating cows. J. Dairy Sci. 73:3526-3537. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(90)79052-2
  43. Lohakare, J. D., A. K. Pattanaik and S. A. Khan. 2006. Effect of dietary protein levels on the performance, nutrient balances, metabolic profile and thyroid hormones of crossbred calves. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 19:1588-1596 https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2006.1588
  44. Nolan, J. V. 1993. Nitrogen kinetics. In: Quantitative aspects of ruminant digestion and metabolism (Ed. J. M. Forbes and J. France). CAB International Wallingford, Oxon, UK. pp. 123-143
  45. Olmos Colmenero, J. J. and G. A. Broderick. 2006a. Effect of dietary crude protein concentration on milk production and nitrogen utilization in lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 89:1704-1712. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72238-X
  46. Olmos Colmenero, J. J. and G. A. Broderick. 2006b. Effect of dietary crude protein concentration on ruminal nitrogen metabolism in lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 89:1694-1703. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72237-8
  47. Orskov, E. R. and P. McDonald. 1979. The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurements weighted according to rate of passage. J. Agric. Sci. Cambridge. 92:499-503. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600063048
  48. Promkot, C. and M. Wanapat. 2005. Effect of level of crude protein and use of cottonseed meal in diets containing cassava chips and rice straw for lactating dairy cows. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 18:502-511. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2005.502
  49. Volden, H., L. T. Mydland and V. Olaisen. 2002. Apparent ruminal degradation and rumen escape of soluble nitrogen fractions in grass and grass silage administered intraruminally to lactating dairy cows. J. Anim. Sci. 80:2704-2716.

Cited by

  1. Effects of Static or Oscillating Dietary Crude Protein Levels on Fermentation Dynamics of Beef Cattle Diets Using a Dual-Flow Continuous Culture System vol.11, pp.12, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0169170
  2. Effect of feeding tamarind kernel powder extract residue on digestibility, nitrogen availability and ruminal fermentation in wethers vol.30, pp.3, 2016, https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.16.0137
  3. Partial replacement of triticale for corn grain in starter diet and its effects on performance, structural growth and blood metabolites of Holstein calves vol.11, pp.01, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731116001233
  4. Effects of different dietary protein levels and rumen-protected folic acid on ruminal fermentation, degradability, bacterial populations and urinary excretion of purine derivatives in beef steers vol.155, pp.09, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859617000533
  5. Effects of dietary protein levels and 2-methylbutyrate on ruminal fermentation, nutrient degradability, bacterial populations and urinary purine derivatives in Simmental steers pp.09312439, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1111/jpn.12797
  6. Effect of dried corn distillers’ grains with solubles and soybean meal supplements on physiological indicators and reproductive performance of ewes vol.72, pp.5, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1080/1745039X.2018.1507976
  7. INFLUENCE OF GRAIN TYPE AND OIL CONCENTRATION OF DRIED CORN DISTILLERS GRAIN WITH SOLUBLES ON RUMINAL FERMENTATION AND IN VITRO GAS PRODUCTION IN CATTLE FED HIGH-CONCENTRATE DIETS pp.1918-1825, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1139/CJAS-2018-0036