Effect of bitter melon (Momordica Charantia) on anti-diabetic activity in C57BLI/6J db/db mice

C57BL/6J db/db생쥐에서 여주 (Momordica Charantia)의 항당뇨 효과

  • Jeong, Jae-Hwang (Department of Biosciences and Bioinformatic, Chungbuk Provincial University of Science and Technology) ;
  • Lee, Sang-Hwa (Department of Food and Nutrition, Seowon University) ;
  • Hue, Jin-Joo (College of Veterinary Medicine and Research Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University) ;
  • Lee, Ki-Nam (College of Veterinary Medicine and Research Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University) ;
  • Nam, Sang Yoon (College of Veterinary Medicine and Research Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University) ;
  • Yun, Young Won (College of Veterinary Medicine and Research Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University) ;
  • Jeong, Seong-woon (Ilshinwells Co.) ;
  • Lee, Young Ho (Ilshinwells Co.) ;
  • Lee, Beom Jun (College of Veterinary Medicine and Research Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University)
  • Accepted : 2008.09.22
  • Published : 2008.12.01

Abstract

Many herbal extracts have been reported to have a preventive or therapeutic effect of on diabetes mellitus. Momordica Charantia commonly known as bitter melon or karela has been reported to be a medicinal plant for treating various diseases including cancers and diabetes. The objectives of this study were to investigate anti-diabetic effects of bitter melon (BM) as determined by blood glucose levels, glucose tolerance test (GTT), insulin tolerance test (ITT), insulin and HbA1C activities in serum, serum biochemical and lipid levels, histopathology, immunohistochemistry and AMPK-${\alpha}2$ expression of skeletal muscle in male C57BL/6J db/db mice. There were four experimental groups including vehicle control, BM 10 mg/kg, BM 50 mg/kg, and BM 250 mg/kg. BM at doses of 10, 50, and 250 mg/kg was orally administered to the diabetic mice everyday for 8 weeks. The treatments of BM 10, 50, and 250 mg/kg significantly decreased the blood glucose level in the diabetic mice compared with vehicle control (p < 0.05). The treatments of BM 10 and 50 mg/kg significantly decreased the GTT, ITT and HbA1c levels in the diabetic mice compared with vehicle control (p < 0.05). All BM groups significantly decreased GOT, GPT, BUN, LDL and glucose levels in the diabetic mice compared with the vehicle control mice (p < 0.05). The livers of mice treated with the BM 10, 50, and 250 mg/kg showed a remarkable decrease in the number of lipid droplets compared with the vehicle control. The pancreas of mice treated with the BM 10, 50, and 250 mg/kg showed a remarkable increase in insulin concentration of ${\beta}$-cells compared with the vehicle control. In addition, the treatments of BM 10, 50, and 250 mg/kg actually increased the expression of AMPK-${\alpha}2$ compared with vehicle control. These results suggest that BM has a respectable anti-diabetic effect resulting from inhibition of blood glucose level and lipid level in serum and that consumption of BM may give a benefit for controlling diabetes mellitus in humans.

References

  1. Akhlar MS, Athar MA, Yaqub M. Effect of Momordica charan/ia on blood glucose level of normal and alloxan-diabetic rabbits. Planta Med 1981, 42, 205-212 https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-971629
  2. AIi L, Khan AK, Mamun MI, Mosihuzzaman M, Nahar N, Nur-e-Alam M, Rokeya B. Studies on hypoglycemic effects of ftuit pulp, seed, and whole plant of Momordica coorantia on normal and diabetic model rats. Planta Med 1993, 59, 408-412 https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2006-959720
  3. Amos AF, McCarty DJ, Zirnrnet P, The rising global burden of diabetes and its complications: estimates and projections to the year 2010. Diabet Med 1997, 14 (Suppl 5), S1-85 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02706034
  4. Atta-Ur-Rahman, Zaman K. Medicinal plants with hypoglycemic activity. J Ethnopharmacol 1989, 26, 1-55 https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-8741(89)90112-8
  5. Bailey CJ. Day C, Turner SL, Leatherdale BA. Cerasee, a traditional treatment for diabetes. Studies in normal and streptozotocin diabetic mice. Diabetes Res 1985, 2, 81-84
  6. Reloin N, Gbeassor M, Akpagana K, Hudson J, de Soussa K, Koumaglo K, Arnason JT. Ethhnomedicinal uses of Momordica charantia (Cucurbitaceae) in Togo and relation to its phytochemistry and biological activity. J Ethnopharmacol 2005, 96, 49-55 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2004.08.009
  7. Cakici I, Hurmoglu C, Tunctan B, Abacioglu N, Kanrik I, Sener B. Hypoglycaemic effect of Momordica charantia extracts in normoglycaemic or cyproheptadine-induced hyperglycaemic mice. J Ethnopharmacol 1994, 44, 117-121 https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-8741(94)90077-9
  8. Cummings E, Hundal HS, Wackerhage H, Hope M, Belle M, Adeghate E, Singh J. Momordico charantia fruit juice stimulates glucose and amino acid uptakes in L6 myotubes. Mol Cell Biochem 2004, 261, 99-104 https://doi.org/10.1023/B:MCBI.0000028743.75669.ab
  9. Day C, Cartwright T, Provost J, Bailey CJ , Hypoglycaemic effect of Momordica charantia extracts. Planta Med 1990, 56, 426-429 https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2006-961003
  10. Grover JK, Yadav SP. Pharmacological actions and potential uses of Momordica choralllia: a review. J Ethnopharmacol 2004, 93, 123-132 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2004.03.035
  11. Gurbuz I, Akyuz C, Yesilada E, Sener B. Anti-ulcerogenic effect of Momordica chorantia L. fruits on various ulcer models in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2000, 71, 77-82 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(99)00178-6
  12. Higashino H, Suzuki A, Tanaka Y, Pootakha m K. Hypoglycemic effects of Siamese Momordica charantia and Phyllanthus urinaria extracts in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (the 1st report). Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi 1992, 100, 415-421 https://doi.org/10.1254/fpj.100.415
  13. Jayasooriya AP, Sakono M, Yukizaki C, Kawano M, Yamamoto K, Fukuda N. Effects of Momordica charantia powder on serum glucose levels and various lipid parameters in rats fed with cholesterol-free and cholesterol-enriched diets. J Ethnopharmacol 2000, 72, 331-336 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00259-2
  14. King H, Aubert RE, Herman WH. Global burden of diabetes, 1995-2025 : prevalence, numerical estimates, and projections. Diabetes Care 1998, 21, 1414-1431 https://doi.org/10.2337/diacare.21.9.1414
  15. King PA, Horton ED, Hirshman MF, Horton ES. Insulin resistance in obese Zucker rat (fa/fa) skeletal muscle is associated with a failure of glucose transponer translocation. J Clin Invest 1992, 90, 1568-1575 https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI116025
  16. Ng TB, Wong CM, Li WW, Yeung HW. Insulin-like molecules in Momordica charontio seeds. J Ethnopharmacol 1986, 15, 107-117 https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-8741(86)90106-6
  17. Pugazhenthi S, Murthy SP. Partial purification of a hypoglycemie fraction from the unripe fruits of Momrdica charantia Linn. Indian J Biochem 1995, 10, 19-22 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02873663
  18. Raman A, Lau C. Anti-diabetie properties and phytochemistry of Momordica charantia L (Cueurbitaceae). Phytomedicine 1996, 2, 349-362 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0944-7113(96)80080-8
  19. Sarkar S, Pranava M, Marita R. Demonstration of the hypoglyeemic action of Momordica charantia in a validated animal model of diabetes. Pharmacol Res 1996, 33, 1-4 https://doi.org/10.1006/phrs.1996.0001
  20. Scartezzini P, Speroni E. Review on some plants of Indian traditional medicine with antioxidant activity. J Ethnopharmacol 2000, 71, 23-43 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00213-0
  21. Senanayake GV, Maruyama M, Shibuya K, Sakono M, Fukuda N, Morishita T, Yukil.aki C, Kawano M, Ohta H. The effects of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) on serum and liver triglyceride levels in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2004, 91, 257-262 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2003.12.026
  22. Sharma AK, Galada ri EO, Dehara I, Manchandra M, Abdulrazzaq SK, Mehra MK Diabetes Mellitus and Its Complications: An Update. 1st ed. pp. 192-205, Macmillan, New Delhi, 1993
  23. Shanna VN, Sogani RK, Arora RB. Some observations on hypoglycaemia activity in Momordica charantio. Indian J Med Res 1960, 48, 471-477
  24. Shibib BA, Khan LA, Rahman R. Hypoglycaemic activity of Coccinia indica and Momordica charantia in diabetic rats: depression of the hepatic glueoneogenic enzymes glucose-6-phospharase and fructose-1,6- bisphospharase and elevation of both liver and red-cell shunt enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Biochem J 1993, 292, 267-270 https://doi.org/10.1042/bj2920267
  25. Singh A, Singb SP, Bamezai R. Momordica charantia (Bitter Gourd) peel, pulp, seed and whole fruit extract inhibits skin papillomagenesis. Toxicol Lett 1998, 94, 37-46 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-4274(97)00099-4
  26. Srivastava. Y, Vnakatakimhna-Bbatt H, Verma Y, Prtm AS. Retatdation of retinopathy by Momordica charantia L. (bittergourd) fruit juice in alloxan diabetic rats. Indian J Exp Biol 1987, 25, 571-572
  27. Miura T, Itoh C, Iwmoto N. Kato M, Kawal M, Park SR, Suzuki I. HypogIycemic Activity of the Fruit of the Momordica charantia in Type 2 Diabetic mice. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 2001, 47, 340-344 https://doi.org/10.3177/jnsv.47.340
  28. Weihiada J, Karunanayake EH, Sheriff MH, Jayuinghe KS. Effect of Momordica charantia on the glucose tolerance in maturity onset diabetes. J Ethnopharmacol 1986, 17, 277-282 https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-8741(86)90116-9