Monitoring and risk assessment of 1,4-Dioxane in Nakdong river

낙동강 수계 중 1,4-dioxane의 모니터링 및 위해성 평가

  • Lee, Ji-Young (Bioanalysis and Biotransformation Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology) ;
  • Kim, Joung-Hwa (Drinking water Division, National Institute of Environmental) ;
  • Kim, Hyun-Koo (Drinking water Division, National Institute of Environmental) ;
  • Choi, Jong-Ho (Department of chemistry, Korea University) ;
  • Kim, Seungki (Bioanalysis and Biotransformation Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology) ;
  • Pyo, Heesoo (Bioanalysis and Biotransformation Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology)
  • 이지영 (한국과학기술연구원 생체대사연구센터) ;
  • 김정화 (국립환경과학원 먹는물과) ;
  • 김현구 (국립환경과학원 먹는물과) ;
  • 최종호 (고려대학교 화학과) ;
  • 김승기 (한국과학기술연구원 생체대사연구센터) ;
  • 표희수 (한국과학기술연구원 생체대사연구센터)
  • Received : 2008.03.03
  • Accepted : 2008.09.10
  • Published : 2008.10.25

Abstract

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified it as a possible carcinogen and World Health Organization (WHO) has suggested 50 ng/mL as a guideline value for 1,4-dioxane. Considering the toxicity of 1,4-dioxane and ingestion rate of drinking water, the monitoring of 1,4-dioxane in drinking water in Nakdong river is very important. We analyzed 1,4-dioxane four times per year for the 12 samples of treated water and 4 samples of raw water in Nakdong river in Korea from 2000 to 2007 and surveyed the trend of concentrations of 1,4-dioxane. As a results of analysis, 1,4-dioxane was detected from 0.24 to 240.2 ng/mL in treated water and from 0.39 to 81.9 ng/mL in raw water from 2000 to 2007. The average concentrations are 22.68 ng/mL and 19.15 ng/mL in treated water and raw water, respectively. The detected concentrations was decreased but frequency of detection was not changed since establishment of regulation in 2004. Results of comparison of 95 percentile excessive cancer risk of 1,4-dioxane in treated and raw water were each $6.63{\times}10^{-6}$, $3.17{\times}10^{-6}$ before 2004 and $2.10{\times}10^{-6}$, $1.22{\times}10^{-6}$ after 2004. Also, comparing the detected concentration and frequency for each season, these were more detected the concentration and frequency for 1,4-dioxane in treated and raw water from winter to spring.

Keywords

1,4-dioxane;drinking water;monitoring;risk assessment;GC/MS

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