Analysis of Connection Errors by Students' Field Independence-Dependence in Learning Chemistry Concepts with Multiple External Representations

다중 표상을 활용한 화학 개념 학습에서 학생들의 장독립성-장의존성에 따른 연계 오류 분석

  • Published : 2008.08.30


This study investigated connecting errors by students' field independence-dependence in learning chemistry concepts with multiple external representations in current science textbooks. Seventh graders (N=196) at a middle school were assigned to the BL and CL groups, which were respectively taught "Boyle's Law" and "Charles's Law." A field independence-dependence test was administered. After learning the target concept with text and picture emphasizing the particulate nature of matter, a connecting test was also administered. Five types of connecting errors were identified: Insufficient connection, misconnection, rash connection, impossible connection, and failing to connect. 'Failing to connect,' 'Misconnection,' and 'Rash connection' were found to be the frequent types of connecting errors regardless of the target concepts. The frequencies and percentages of the types of connecting errors were not significantly different between the field independent and field dependent students. Educational implications of these findings are discussed.


connecting error;multiple external representations;chemistry concept;field independence-dependence


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