DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Antioxidant Activity of Black Garlic (Allium sativum L.)

흑마늘의 항산화 활성

  • Shin, Jung-Hye (Dept. of Hotel Culinary Arts & Bakery, Namhae College) ;
  • Choi, Duck-Joo (Dept. of Hotel Culinary Arts Jaineung College) ;
  • Lee, Soo-Jung (Dept. of Food Science and Nutrition, Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Cha, Ji-Young (Dept. of Food Science and Nutrition, Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Sung, Nak-Ju (Dept. of Food Science and Nutrition, Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Gyeongsang National University)
  • 신정혜 (남해대학 호텔조리제빵과) ;
  • 최덕주 (재능대학 호텔조리외식과) ;
  • 이수정 (경상대학교 식품영양학과.농업생명과학연구원) ;
  • 차지영 (경상대학교 식품영양학과.농업생명과학연구원) ;
  • 성낙주 (경상대학교 식품영양학과.농업생명과학연구원)
  • Published : 2008.08.30

Abstract

The antioxidant activities of hot water and ethanol extracts from fresh, steamed and black garlic were compared. The levels of phenolic compounds of extracts from fresh, steamed and black garlic were $0.81{\sim}0.99\;mg$/100 g and their contents were not significantly different. The contents of flavonoids in ethanol extracts, $0.96{\pm}0.05{\sim}1.06{\pm}0.09\;mg$/100 g, was higher than hot water extracts. DPPH radical scavenging activity was higher in ethanol extract. Although the highest level was $69.40{\pm}0.13%$ in concentration of 10 mg/mL from black garlic ethanol extract, ethanol extracts showed $50.55{\pm}1.40%$ in concentration of 15 mg/mL. Reducing power was significantly higher in black garlic extract and higher in the order of black garlic> fresh garlic> steamed garlic in ethanol extract. Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity was higher in ethanol extract, showing over 60% in concentration of 5 mg/mL. In oil emulsion, TBA value was significantly lower in hot water extracts from black garlic, however ethanol extracts were not significantly different. TBA value of ethanol extract were $1.49{\pm}0.08{\sim}2.11{\pm}0.16\;MA\;mg/kg$ and $1.33{\pm}0.18{\sim}1.62{\pm}0.19\;MA\;mg/kg$ from steamed and black garlic, respectively. Antioxidant activity to the linoleic acid was $72.71{\pm}2.17{\sim}88.74{\pm}3.70%$ in 1-day storage, but its level was increased at 4-day storage to $86.67{\pm}3.76{\sim}92.50{\pm}0.87%$.

References

  1. Kim JP, Chon IJ, Cho HK, Ham IH, Whang WK. 2004. The antioxidant and the antidiabetic effects of ethanol extract from biofunctional foods prescriptions. Kor J Pharmacogn 35: 98-103
  2. Dean RT, Gieseg Davies MJ. 1993. Reactive species and their accumulation on radical damaged proteins. Trends Biochem Sci 18: 437-441 https://doi.org/10.1016/0968-0004(93)90145-D
  3. Jung SJ, Lee JH, Song HN, Seong NS, Lee SE, Beak NI. 2004. Screening for antioxidant activity of plant medicinal extracts. J Korean Soc Appl Biol Chem 47: 135-140
  4. Lee SE, Seong NS, Bang JK, Park CG. 2003. Antioxidative activities of Korean medicinal plants. Korean J Medicinal Corp Sci 11: 127-134
  5. Lee GD, Chang HG, Kim HK. 1997. Antioxidative and nitrite-scavenging activity of edible mushrooms. Korean J Food Sci Technol 29: 432-436
  6. Kim MK, Kim MC, Park JS, Kim JW, Lee JO. 2001. The antioxidative effects of the water-soluble extracts of plants used as tea materials. Korean J Food Sci Technol 33: 12-18
  7. Heo SJ, Yang MO, Cho EJ. 2001. Analysis of Umbelliferaceae wild plants and antioxidative activity of pork meat products added with wild plants. Korean J Soc Food Cookery Sci 17: 456-463
  8. Kim HK, Na GM, Ye SH, Han HS. 2004. Extraction characteristics and antioxidative activity of Schiznadra chinensis extracts. Korean J Food Culture 19: 484-490
  9. Kim YP, Lee GW, Oh HI. 2006. Optimization of extraction conditions for garlic oleoresin and changes in the quality characteristics of oleoresin during storage. Korean J Food & Nutr 19: 219-226
  10. Imai J, Ide N, Nagae S, Moriguchi T, Matsuura H, Itakura Y. 1994. Antioxidant and radical scavenging effects of aged garlic extract and its constituents. Plant Med 60: 417-420 https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2006-959522
  11. Yoo GA. 2006. Effect of garlic supplement and exercise on plasma lipid and antioxidant enzyme system in rats. Korean J Nutrition 39: 3-10
  12. Cho SH, Bae EY, Lee CN, You CE, Lee JD. 2003. A case of irritant contact dermatitis due to garlic. Korean J Dermatology 41: 385-387
  13. 박홍현, 이영남, 이경희, 김태희. 2004. 마늘의 세계. 효일출판사, 서울. p 91-94
  14. Gutfinger T. 1981. Polyphenols in olive oils. JAOCS 58: 966-967 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02659771
  15. Moreno MIN, Isla MIN, Sampietro AR, Vattuone MA. 2000. Comparison of the free radical scavenging activity of propolis from several region of Argentina. J Enthropharmacology 71: 109-114 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(99)00189-0
  16. Blois MS. 1958. Antioxidant determination by the use of a stable free radical. Nature 181: 1199-1200 https://doi.org/10.1038/1811199a0
  17. Oyaizu M. 1986. Studies on products of browning reactions: antioxidative activities of products of browning reaction prepared from glucosamine. J apanese J Nutr 44: 307-315 https://doi.org/10.5264/eiyogakuzashi.44.307
  18. Gutteridge JM. 1984. Reactivity of hydroxyl and hydroxyl like radicals discriminated by release of thiobarbituric acid reactive material from deoxy sugars, nucleosides and benzoate. Biochem J 224: 761-767 https://doi.org/10.1042/bj2240761
  19. Buege JA, Aust SD. 1978. Microsomal lipid peroxidation. Methods Enzymol 52: 302-310 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0076-6879(78)52032-6
  20. Osawa T. 1981. A novel type of antioxidant isolated from leaf was of Eucalyptus leaves. Agric Biol Chem 45: 735-739 https://doi.org/10.1271/bbb1961.45.735
  21. Kim EY, Baik IH, Kim JH, Kim SR, Rhyu MR. 2004. Screening of the antioxidant activity of some medicinal plants. Korean J Food Sci Technol 36: 333-338
  22. Woo KS, Hwang IG, Noh YH, Jeong HS. 2007. Antioxidant activity of heated licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch) extracts in Korea. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 36: 689-695 https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2007.36.6.689
  23. Kim SD, Do JH, Oh HI. 1981. Antioxidant activity of Panax ginseng browning products. J Korean Agric Chem Soc 24: 161-166
  24. Jeong JY, Woo KS, Hwang IG, Yoon HS, Lee YR, Jeong HS. 2007. Effects of heat treatment and antioxidant activity of aroma on garlic harvested in different cultivation areas. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 36: 1637-1642 https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2007.36.12.1637
  25. Lertittikul W, Benjakul S, Tanaka M. 2007. Characteristics and antioxidative activity of Maillard reaction products from a porcine plasma protein-glucose model system as influenced by pH. Food Chem 100: 669-677 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.09.085
  26. Manian R, Anusuya N, Siddhyraju P, Manian S. 2008. The antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging potential of two different solvent extracts of Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntz, Ficus bengalensis L. and Ficus racemosa L. Food Chem 107: 1000-1007 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.09.008
  27. Kim SM, Cho YS, Sung SK. 2001. The antioxidant ability and nitrite scavenging ability of plant extracts. Korean J Food Sci Technol 33: 626-632
  28. Lee SE, Han HS, Jang IB, Kim GS, Shin YS, Son YD, Park CB, Seong NS. 2005. In vitro antioxidant activity of Mentha viridis L. and Mentha piperita L. Korean J Medicinal Crop Sci 13: 255-260
  29. Lee SO, Kim MJ, Kim DG, Choi HJ. 2005. Antioxidative activities of temperature-stepwise water extracts from Inonotus obliquus. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 34: 139-147 https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2005.34.2.139
  30. Nuttakaan L, Viboon R, Nantaya C, Janusz MG. 2006. Quantitative evaluation of the antioxidant properties of garlic and shallot preparations. Nutrition 22: 266-274 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2005.05.010

Cited by

  1. Comparison of Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects between Fresh and Aged Black Garlic Extracts vol.21, pp.4, 2016, https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21040430
  2. Effects of the Red Garlic Extract for Anti-Obesity and Hypolipidemic in Obese Rats Induced High Fat Diet vol.21, pp.2, 2011, https://doi.org/10.5352/JLS.2011.21.2.211
  3. Comparison of Antioxidant Activities of Black Onion Extracts vol.18, pp.6, 2011, https://doi.org/10.11002/kjfp.2011.18.6.954
  4. Biological Activities of Yellow Garlic Extract vol.44, pp.7, 2015, https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2015.44.7.983
  5. Antioxidants Activity of Aged Red Garlic vol.20, pp.5, 2010, https://doi.org/10.5352/JLS.2010.20.5.775
  6. The Effect of Black Garlic Extract on Lipid Metabolism in Restraint Stressed Rats vol.22, pp.11, 2012, https://doi.org/10.5352/JLS.2012.22.11.1529
  7. Change of Antioxidant Activities in Preparing Freeze Dried Wild Vegetable Block for the Long-term Storage vol.38, pp.12, 2009, https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2009.38.12.1649
  8. Effects of Aged Black Garlic Extracts on the Rheology of Flour Dough vol.41, pp.3, 2012, https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2012.41.3.430
  9. Change of Antioxidant Activities in Carrots (Daucus carota var. sativa) with Enzyme Treatment vol.42, pp.2, 2013, https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.2.262
  10. Physicochemical Properties, Biological Activity, Health Benefits, and General Limitations of Aged Black Garlic: A Review vol.22, pp.6, 2017, https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22060919
  11. Antioxidant and Whitening Effects of Sorbus commixta HEDL Cortex Extract vol.39, pp.10, 2010, https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2010.39.10.1418
  12. Quality Characteristics of Vinegar Added with Different Levels of Black Garlic vol.32, pp.1, 2016, https://doi.org/10.9724/kfcs.2016.32.1.16
  13. Effect of Garlic and Medicinal Plants Composites on Antioxidant Activity and Lipid Levels of Liver in Hypercholesterolemic Rats vol.19, pp.12, 2009, https://doi.org/10.5352/JLS.2009.19.12.1769
  14. Antioxidant activity of Giant Black Garlic vol.72, pp.OCE4, 2013, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0029665113002553
  15. Enhancement of Antioxidative Activity of Codonopsis lanceolata by Stepwise Steaming Process vol.20, pp.4, 2012, https://doi.org/10.7783/KJMCS.2012.20.4.238
  16. Antioxidant and Antiobesity Activity of Solvent Fractions from Red Garlic vol.22, pp.7, 2012, https://doi.org/10.5352/JLS.2012.22.7.950
  17. Effect of Black Garlic and Mugwort Extracts on Lipids Profile during Restraint Stress vol.42, pp.4, 2013, https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.4.577
  18. Biological Activities of Dried Garlic, Red Ginseng and Their Mixture vol.38, pp.12, 2009, https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2009.38.12.1633
  19. The Effect of Garlic and Medicinal Plants Extracts on the Liver Function and Lipid Metabolism of Rats Administered with Alcohol vol.38, pp.5, 2009, https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2009.38.5.561
  20. Individual differences on immunostimulatory activity of raw and black garlic extract in human primary immune cells vol.34, pp.4, 2012, https://doi.org/10.3109/08923973.2011.649288
  21. Effect of black garlic on antioxidant activity and amino acids composition in Cheonggukjang vol.20, pp.5, 2013, https://doi.org/10.11002/kjfp.2013.20.5.643
  22. Safety Evaluation of Black Garlic Extract for Development of Cosmeceutical Ingredients -Skin irritation and Sensitization Studies- vol.39, pp.8, 2010, https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2010.39.8.1213
  23. The Effects of Soybean Protopectinase on Melanin Biosynthesis vol.42, pp.3, 2013, https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.3.355
  24. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment on flavor, physicochemical properties and biological functionalities of garlic vol.55, pp.1, 2014, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2013.08.027
  25. Physicochemical and Microbial Quality Characteristics of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) by Superheated Steam Treatment vol.45, pp.10, 2016, https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2016.45.10.1438
  26. Quality Characteristics of Seasoned Pork with Water Extracts of Allium hookeri Root during Storage vol.44, pp.2, 2015, https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2015.44.2.242
  27. Black Onions Manufactured via the Browning Reaction and Antioxidant Effects of Their Water Extracts vol.18, pp.3, 2011, https://doi.org/10.11002/kjfp.2011.18.3.310
  28. Antioxidant Activities and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Effect of Water Extracts from Medicinal Plants vol.21, pp.3, 2013, https://doi.org/10.7783/KJMCS.2013.21.3.197
  29. Antifatigue Effect of Eel and Plant Mix Extracts during Aerobic Running Training in Sprague Dawley Rats vol.24, pp.7, 2014, https://doi.org/10.5352/JLS.2014.24.7.728
  30. Quality characteristics and antioxidant activity of drink prepared with black garlic and Oenanthe javanica DC vol.21, pp.2, 2014, https://doi.org/10.11002/kjfp.2014.21.2.193
  31. Physicochemical Composition of Baked Garlic vol.18, pp.4, 2011, https://doi.org/10.11002/kjfp.2011.18.4.575
  32. Effect of Garlic Enzymatic Hydrolysates and Natural Color Resource Composites on Lipid Metabolism in Rat Fed a High Fat Diet vol.25, pp.6, 2015, https://doi.org/10.5352/JLS.2015.25.6.663
  33. The Effect of Extract Powder from Fresh and Black Garlic on Main Components in Serum and Organs of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats vol.23, pp.3, 2013, https://doi.org/10.5352/JLS.2013.23.3.432
  34. Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activities of Rehmanniae radix Paste vol.40, pp.11, 2011, https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2011.40.11.1518
  35. Comparison of the Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activities of the Commercial Black Garlic and Lab-Prepared Fermented and Aged Black Garlic vol.40, pp.3, 2011, https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2011.40.3.366
  36. Optimum conditions for S-allyl-(L)-cysteine accumulation in aged garlic by RSM vol.23, pp.3, 2014, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10068-014-0097-1
  37. Studies on Bioactive Substances and Antioxidant Activities of Marine Algae from Jeju Island vol.8, pp.1, 2016, https://doi.org/10.15433/ksmb.2016.8.1.030
  38. Changes in quality characteristic of immature flat persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb) during heat treatment aging vol.23, pp.3, 2016, https://doi.org/10.11002/kjfp.2016.23.3.301
  39. Volatile Flavor Compounds in Commercial Black Garlic Extracts vol.41, pp.1, 2012, https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2012.41.1.116
  40. Quality Characteristics of Sausage Prepared with Black Garlic Extract and Dried Powder of Specialized Crops Cultivated in Namhae vol.30, pp.4, 2014, https://doi.org/10.9724/kfcs.2014.30.4.444
  41. The Quality Characteristics of Sausage with Added Black Garlic Extracts vol.27, pp.6, 2011, https://doi.org/10.9724/kfcs.2011.27.6.701
  42. Preparation and Quality Characteristics of Makgeolli Made with Black Garlic Extract and Sulgidduk vol.40, pp.5, 2011, https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2011.40.5.759
  43. Quality Characteristics and Biological Activity of Fermented Black Garlic with Probiotics vol.24, pp.5, 2014, https://doi.org/10.5352/JLS.2014.24.5.549
  44. Immunostimulatory and Antioxidant Activities of Steamed Garlic Grown in Different Countries vol.31, pp.2, 2016, https://doi.org/10.13103/JFHS.2016.31.2.126
  45. Improvement of Antioxidative Activity by Enzyme Treatment and Lactic Acid Bacteria Cultivation in Black Garlic vol.40, pp.5, 2011, https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2011.40.5.660
  46. Change in Flavor Components of Black-fermented Garlic Wine according to the Type of Chips during the Manufacturing Process vol.29, pp.1, 2014, https://doi.org/10.13103/JFHS.2014.29.1.073
  47. Antioxidant and anti-fatigue effects of abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) composites containing natural plant vol.22, pp.4, 2015, https://doi.org/10.11002/kjfp.2015.22.4.598
  48. Comparison of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Spirulina maxima Extract by Ultrasonication and Water Extraction Process vol.43, pp.12, 2014, https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2014.43.12.1852
  49. Optimization of Black Garlic Extract Curing Conditions for Mackerel Using Response Surface Methodology vol.27, pp.6, 2011, https://doi.org/10.9724/kfcs.2011.27.6.793
  50. Quality Characteristics of Kimchi Seasoning with Black Garlic vol.29, pp.5, 2016, https://doi.org/10.9799/ksfan.2016.29.5.677
  51. Biological Activity of Browning Compounds from Processed Garlics Separated by Dialysis Membrane vol.40, pp.3, 2011, https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2011.40.3.357
  52. Antioxidant Activity of Solvent Fraction from Black Garlic vol.39, pp.7, 2010, https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2010.39.7.933
  53. Quality Characteristics of Jochung Containing Various Level of Steamed Garlic Powder vol.28, pp.6, 2012, https://doi.org/10.9724/kfcs.2012.28.6.865
  54. Physicochemical Properties and Antioxidative Activity of Lactic Acid Bacteria Fermented Rhodiola sachalinensis using Adsorption Process vol.25, pp.4, 2012, https://doi.org/10.9799/ksfan.2012.25.4.779
  55. Antioxidative Capacity and Quality Characteristics of Yanggaeng with Fermented Aged Black Giant Garlic (Allium ampeloprasum L. var. ampeloprasum auct.) Paste vol.27, pp.6, 2014, https://doi.org/10.9799/ksfan.2014.27.6.1014
  56. Establishment of Extraction Conditions for the Optimization of the Black Garlic Antioxidant Activity Using the Response Surface Methodology vol.19, pp.4, 2012, https://doi.org/10.11002/kjfp.2012.19.4.577