Effect of Combined Osmotic Dehydration and Hot-air Drying on the Quality of Dried Apple Products

삼투건조와 열풍건조의 조합이 사과 건조제품의 품질에 미치는 영향

  • Published : 2008.02.28


This study was conducted to investigate the effects of combined osmotic dehydration and hot-air drying on the quality of dried apple products. Apple cylinders were steeped in 30% and 50% sucrose solutions at different steeping times. During the osmotic dehydration, as the concentration of the sucrose solution and steeping time increased, weight reduction and water loss increased, and the solid gain showed similar results. Osmotic dehydration in the sucrose solutions was followed by hot-air drying at 50 and $70^{\circ}C$. The experimental data were fitted successfully using the modified Page model. At the drying temperature of $50^{\circ}C$, the drying time increased from 4.15 hr for the control to 5.78 hr and 6.42 hr for the 30 and 50% sucrose solution treatments, respectively. Similar results were shown at the $70^{\circ}C$ drying temperature. The k and n values of the apple cylinders decreased by osmotic dehydration, and the k and n of the apple cylinders steeped in the 50% sucrose solution were lower than those of the samples steeped in the 30% sucrose solution. The qualities of the dried apple products were compared to samples that did not undergo osmotic dehydration. The shrinkage and rehydration capacity of the apple products decreased via osmotic dehydration, and decreased as the concentration of the sucrose solution increased. The compressibility ratios of the apple products to raw apple cylinders increased by osmotic dehydration, and increased as the concentration of sucrose solution increased. The sensory evaluation results for the apple products rehydrated in yoghurt indicate that osmotic dehydration greatly enhances the palatability of apple products in terms of appearance, taste, and texture.


osmotic dehydration;hot-air drying;apple;dried product;quality


  1. Sablani SS, Rahman MS, Al-Sadeiri DS. Equilibrium distribution data for osmotic drying of apple cubes in sugar-water solution. J. Food Eng. 52: 193-199 (2002) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0260-8774(01)00103-0
  2. Rastogi NK, Raghavarao KSMS, Niranjan K, Knorr D. Recent developments in osmotic dehydration: Methods to enhance mass transfer. Trends Food Sci. Tech. 13: 48-59 (2002) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-2244(02)00032-8
  3. Mandala IG, Anagnostaras EF, Oikonomou CK. Influence of osmotic dehydration conditions on apple air-drying kinetics and their quality characteristics. J. Food Eng. 69: 307-316 (2005) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2004.08.021
  4. Madamba PS, Driscoll RH, Buckle KA. The thin-layer drying characteristics of garlic slices. J. Food Eng. 29: 75-97 (1996) https://doi.org/10.1016/0260-8774(95)00062-3
  5. Prothon F, Ahrne LM, Funebo T, Kidman S, Langton M, Sjoholm. Effects of combined osmotic and microwave dehydration of apple on texture, microstructure, and dehydration kinetics. Lebensm. Wiss. Technol. 34: 95-101 (2001) https://doi.org/10.1006/fstl.2000.0745
  6. Lozano JE, Rostein E, Urbicain MJ. Shrinkage, porosity and bulk density of foodstuffs at changing moisture contents. J. Food Sci. 48: 1497-1502,1553 (1983) https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1983.tb03524.x
  7. Lazarides HN, Katsanidis E, Nickolaidis A. Mass transfer during osmotic pre-concentration aiming at minimal solid uptake. J. Food Eng. 25: 151-166 (1995) https://doi.org/10.1016/0260-8774(94)00006-U
  8. Falade KO, Igbeka JC, Ayanwuyi FA. Kinetics of mass transfer and colour changes during osmotic dehydration of watermelon. J. Food Eng. 80: 979-985 (2007) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2006.06.033
  9. Kingsly ARP, Meena HR, Jain RK, Singh DB. Shrinkage of ber (Zizyphus mauritian L.) fruits during sun drying. J. Food Eng. 79: 6-10 (2007) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2006.01.019
  10. Monsalve-Gonzalez A, Gustavo V, Barbosa-Canovas GV, Cavalieri RP. Mass transfer and textural changes during processing of apples by combined methods. J. Food Sci. 58: 1118-1124 (1993) https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1993.tb06128.x
  11. Wang ZW, Sun J, Chen F, Liao X, Hu X. Mathematical modeling on thin layer microwave drying of apple pomace with and without hot air pre-drying. J. Food Eng. 80: 536-544 (2007) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2006.06.019
  12. Lenart A. Osmo-convective drying of fruits and vegetables: Technology and application. Dry. Technol. 14: 391-413 (1996) https://doi.org/10.1080/07373939608917104
  13. Ponting JD. Osmotic dehydration of fruits - Recent modifications and applications. Process Biochem. 8: 18-20 (1973)
  14. Ratti C. Shrinkage during drying of foodstuffs. J. Food Eng. 23: 91-105 (1994) https://doi.org/10.1016/0260-8774(94)90125-2
  15. Torreggiani D. Osmotic dehydration in fruit and vegetable processing. Food Res. Int. 26: 59-68 (1993) https://doi.org/10.1016/0963-9969(93)90106-S
  16. Nieto AB, Salvatori DM, Castro MA, Alzamora SM. Air drying behavior of apples as affected by blanching and glucose impregnation. J. Food Eng. 36: 63-79 (1998) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0260-8774(98)00043-0
  17. del Valle JM, Cuadros TRM, Aguilera JM. Glass transitions and shrinkage during drying and storage of osmosed apple pieces. Food Res. Int. 31: 191-204 (1998) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0963-9969(98)00059-3
  18. Levi A, Ben-Shalom N, Plat D, Reid DS. Effect of blanching and drying on pectin constituents and related characteristics of dehydrated peaches. J. Food Sci. 53: 1187-1190 (1988) https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1988.tb13558.x
  19. Uddin BM, Ainsworth P, Ibanoglu S. Evaluation of mass exchange during osmotic dehydration of carrots using response surface methodology. J. Food Eng. 65: 473-477 (2004) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2004.02.007
  20. Barbanti D, Mastrocola D, Severini C. Air drying of plums. A comparison among twelve cultivars. Sci. Aliment. 14: 61-73 (1994)
  21. Reppa A, Mandala J, Kostaropoulos AE, Saravacos GD. Influence of solute temperature and concentration on the combined osmotic and air drying. Dry. Technol. 17: 1449-1458 (1999) https://doi.org/10.1080/07373939908917627
  22. Hong JH, Youn KS, Choi YH. Optimization for the process of osmotic dehydration for the manufacturing of dried kiwifruit. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 30: 348-355 (1998)
  23. Raoult-Wack AL. Recent advances in the osmotic dehydration of foods. Trends Food Sci. Tech. 5: 255-260 (1994) https://doi.org/10.1016/0924-2244(94)90018-3