Physiological Activity and Antioxidative Effects of Aged Black Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Extract

숙성에 의해 제조된 흑 마늘 추출물의 생리학적 활성 및 항산화 효과

  • Jang, Eun-Kyung (Departments of Agricultural Chemistry, Kyungpook National University) ;
  • Seo, Ji-Hyun (The Center for Traditional Microorganism Resources (TMR), Keimyung University) ;
  • Lee, Sam-Pin (Department of Food Science and Technology, Keimyung University)
  • Published : 2008.08.01

Abstract

In this study, black garlic was produced by aging under high temperature $(70^{\circ}C)$ and high humidity (90% RH) conditions. Then, the physiological activity and antioxidative effects of its extract were compared to those of normal garlic extract. The black garlic extract had a 2.5-fold higher total polyphenol content than that of the normal garlic extract, showing levels of 10.0 mg/g and 3.7 mg/g, respectively. At the $1,000{\mu}g/mL$ concentration, the black garlic and normal garlic extracts had electron donating abilities of 101.9% and 12.9%, respectively. For their nitritescavenging effects, the normal garlic extract showed slightly higher scavenging activity than the black garlic extract at the 5 mg/mL concentration; whereas the black garlic extract had a slightly higher effect at concentrations above 20 mg/mL. In terms of their superoxide dismutase activities, the black garlic extract showed a 10-fold higher activity as compared to the normal garlic extract at the 20 mg/mL concentration. Furthermore, at 50 mg/mL, the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory effects of the normal garlic and black garlic extracts were approximately 52.7% and 88.8%, respectively. These results indicate that the antioxidant activity and ACE inhibitory effects of the black garlic extract were greater than those of the normal garlic extract.

Keywords

garlic (Allium sativum L.);antioxidant activity;black garlic

References

  1. Ankri S, Mirelman D. Antimicrobial properties of allicin from garlic. Microbes Infec. 2: 125-129 (1999)
  2. Ruffin J, Hunter SA. An evaluation of the side effects of garlic as an antihypertensive agent. Cytobios 37: 85-89 (1983)
  3. Steinmetz KA, Kushi LH, Bostick RM, Folsom AR, Potter JD. Vegetables, fruit, and colon cancer in the Iowa women's health study. Am.J. Epidemiol. 139: 1-15 (1994) https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a116921
  4. Kim TW, Kim BH. Aged garlic and its methods. Korea patent 10- 2007-0080964 (2007)
  5. Kato H, Lee IE, Chuyen NV, Kim SB, Hayase F. Inhibition of nitrosamine formation by nondialyzable melanoidins. Agr. Biol. Chem. Tokyo 51: 1333-1338 (1987) https://doi.org/10.1271/bbb1961.51.1333
  6. Cushman DW, Cheung HS. Spectrophotometric assay and properties of the angiotensin-converting enzyme of rabbit lung. Biochem. Pharmacol. 20: 1637-1648 (1971) https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-2952(71)90292-9
  7. Kang YH, Park YK, Lee GD. The nitrite scavenging and electron donating ability of phenolic compounds. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 28: 232-239 (1996)
  8. Seog HM, Seo MS, Kim SR, Park YK, Lee YT. Characteristics of barley polyphenol extract (BPE) separated from pearling by-products. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 34: 775-779 (2002)
  9. Pryor WA. Oxy-radicals and related species: Their formation, lifetime, and reactions. Am. Rev. Rhysiol. 48: 657-667 (1986) https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ph.48.030186.003301
  10. Huh K, Kim YH, Jin DQ. Protective effect of an aged garlic-bamboo salt mixture on the rat with the alcohol-salicylate induced gastropathy. Yakhak Hoeji 45: 258-268 (2001)
  11. Erdos EG, Skidgel RA, The angiotensin I-converting enzyme. Lab. Invest. 56: 345-348 (1987)
  12. Byers T, Perry G. Dietary carotenes, vitamine C and vitamine E as protective antioxidants in human cancers. Annu. Rev. Nutr. 12: 135-159 (1992)
  13. Corzo-Martínez M, Corzo N, Villamiel M. Biological properties of onions and garlic. Trends Food Sci. Tech. 18: 609-625 (2007) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2007.07.011
  14. Ma SJ. Inhibitory effect of onion seasoning on angiotensin converting enzyme. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 29: 395-400 (2000)
  15. Cavallito CJ, Bailey JH. Allicin, the antibacterial principle of Allium sativum. Isolation, physical properties, and antibacterial action. J. Am.Chem. Soc. 66: 1944-1952 (1944)
  16. Gray JI, Dugan JR. Inhibition of N-nitrosamine in model food system. J. Food Sci. 40: 981-984 (1975) https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1975.tb02248.x
  17. Cooney RV, Ross PD. N-Nitrosation and N-nitration of morpholine by nitrogen dioxide in aqueous solution: Effects of vanillin and related phenols. J. Agr. Food Chem. 35: 789-793 (1987) https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00077a036
  18. Kunio S. Isolation and characterization of angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitor dipeptides derived from Allium sativum L. (garlic). J. Nutr. Biochem. 9: 415-419 (1998) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0955-2863(98)00036-9
  19. Belman S. Onion and garlic oils inhibit tumor promotion. Carcinogenesis 4: 1063-1067 (1983) https://doi.org/10.1093/carcin/4.8.1063
  20. Harenbarg J, Giese C, Zimmermann R. Effect of dried garlic on blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, platelet aggregation, and serum cholesterol levels in patients with hyperlipoproteinmia. Atherosclerosis 74: 247- 249 (1988) https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9150(88)90244-4
  21. Blois MS. Antioxidant determination by the use of a stable free radical. Nature 26: 1199-1200 (1958)
  22. Chung DH, Chung SO. Garlic Science. World science, Seoul, Korea. p. 9 (2005)
  23. AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis. 8th ed. p. 144. The Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC, USA (1955)
  24. Shon MY, Seo JK, Kim HJ, Sung NJ. Chemical composition and physiological activities of doraji (Platycodon grandiflorum). J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 30: 717-720 (2001)
  25. Saul RL, Gee P, Ames BN. Free radicals, DNA damage, and aging. p. 113-129. In: Modern Biological Theories Aging. Warner HR, Butler RN, Sprott RL, Schneider EL (eds). Raven Press, NY, USA (1987)
  26. Vermeirssena V, Campb JV, Verstraetea W. Optimization and validation of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition assay for the screening of bioactive peptides. J. Biochem. Bioph. Meth. 51: 75-87 (2002) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0165-022X(02)00006-4
  27. Kim HM. Method for producing black garlic by rapid maturing. Korea patent 10-2007-0106278 (2007)
  28. Kim HK, Choi YJ, Kim KH. Functional activities of microwaveassisted extracts from Flammulina velutipes. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 34: 1013-1017 (2002)
  29. Kim KJ, Do JR, Kim HK. Antimicrobial, antihypertensive and anticancer activities of garlic extracts. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 37: 228-232 (2005)
  30. Hwang IG, Woo KS, Kim DJ, Hong JT, Hwang BY, Lee YR. Isolation and identification of an antioxidant substance from heated garlic (Allium sativum L.). Food Sci. Biotechnol. 16: 963-966 (2007)
  31. Choi YH, Shim YS, Kim CT, Lee C. Shin DB. Characteristics of thiosulfinates and volatile sulfur compounds from blanched garlic reacted with alliinase. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 39: 660-607 (2007)
  32. Shin HK, Kim KS. Effect of garlic on the changes in blood pressure of hypertensive rats. J. Hanyang Med. Coll. 9: 75-87 (1989)
  33. Pentz R, Guo Z, Kress G, Muller D, Müller B, Siegers CP. Standardization of garlic powder preparations by the estimation of free and hydrolysable SH groups. Planta Med. 56: 691 (1990)
  34. Kwon OC, Woo KS, Kim TM, Kim DJ, Hong JT. Jeong HS. Physicochemical characteristics of garlic (Allium sativum L.) on the high temperature and pressure treatment. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 38: 331- 336 (2006)
  35. Rietz B, Isensee H, Strobach H, Makdessi S, Jacob R. Cardioprotective actions of wild garlic (Allium ursinum) in ischemia and reperfusion. Mol. Cell. Biochem. 119: 143-150 (1993) https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00926865