DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Changes of Physicochemical Components and Antioxidant Activity of Garlic During its Processing

흑마늘 가공 중 이화학적 성분 및 항산화 활성의 변화

  • Published : 2008.08.30

Abstract

This study was performed to confirm of biological function of black garlic, it heated for 11 days at $40{\sim}90^{\circ}C$ (first step: heate for 2 days at $90^{\circ}C$, second step: heated for 4 days at $80^{\circ}C$, third step: heated for 4 days at $60^{\circ}C$ and fourth step: heated for 1 day at $40^{\circ}C$). Samples were analyzed physico-chemical characteristics and antioxidant activity. Hunter L, a and b values were decreased during processing, and then inner part Hunter values were highly decreased at the second step. The moisture contents were decreased to 58.48${\pm}$0.41 g/100 g at fourth step. pH was also acidified to pH 4.22${\pm}$0.02, but O.D. value at 420 nm was increased during processing of black garlic. At fourth step, total phenolics and flavonoids contents were increased about 1.9 and 2.6 folds than first step sample. Also, total pyruvate and thiosulfinate contents were increased about 1.6 and 5.8 folds as change of total phenolic and flavonoid contents, respectively. Fructose contents were the highest level among free sugars and its contents increased to 2,454.45${\pm}$4.20 mg/100 g. Contents of sucrose and maltose were decreased during processing of black garlic. The contents of total minerals were the highest at fourth step (1,009.20${\pm}$6.91 mg/100 g) during its processing. Contents of glutamic acid, proline and aspartic acid were detected higher than other composition amino acids. Taurine and ethanolamine were not detected in the first step sample, but they were detected 0.88${\pm}0.60{\sim}1.06{\pm}$0.04 and 0.28${\pm}0.4{\sim}0.5{\pm}$0.09 mg/100 g in next processing step, respectively. DPPH radical scavenging ability of water and ethanol extracts from black garlic was increased during its processing. Abilities of DPPH radical scavenging were the highest in fourth step sample, its abilities were 67.40${\pm}$0.21% in 1,000 ${\mu}g/ml$ of water extracts. Reducing power was also significantly higher in water extract than ethanol extract on the whole.

Keywords

Black garlic;free sugar;amino acid;antioxidant activity

References

  1. Bae, S. K. and M. R. Kim. 1998. Changed of browning, microbiological and sensory characteristics of concentrated garlic juices during storage. Korean J. Soc. Food Sci. 14, 394-399
  2. Bas, S. K. and M. R. Kim. 2002. Effects of sodium metabisulfite and adipic acid on browning of garlic juice concentrate during storage. Korean J. Soc. Food Cookery Sci. 18, 73-80
  3. Chung, M. J., J. H. Shin, S. J. Lee, S. K. Hong, H. J. Kang and N. J. Sung. 1998. Chemical compounds of wild and cultivated Horned Rampion, Phyteuma Japonicum Miq. Korean J. Food & Nutr. 11, 437-443
  4. Hwang, J. B. 2002. Control of green discoloration in low temperature stored garlic. Ph D thesis, Chung-Ang University, Ansung, Korea
  5. Ide, N., B. H. S. Lau, K. Ryu, H. Matsuura and Y. Itakura. 1999. Antioxidant effects of fructosyl arginine, a Maillard reaction product in aged garlic extract. J. Nutr. Biochem. 10, 372-376 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0955-2863(99)00021-2
  6. Lee, J. W., S. K. Lee, J. H. Do and K. H. Shim. 1998. Characteristicd of the water soluble browning reaction of Korean red ginseng as affected by heating treatment. J. Ginseng Res. 22, 193-199
  7. Kwon, O. C., K. S. Woo, T. M. Kim, D. J. Kim, J. T. Hong and H. S. Jeong. 2006. Physicochemical characteristics of garlic (Allium Sativum L.) on the high temperature and pressure treatment. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 38, 331-336
  8. Miron, T., I. Shin, G. Feigenblat, L. Weiner, D. Mirelman, M. Wilchek and A. Rabinkov. 2002. A spectrophotometric assay for allicin, alliin, and alliinase with a chromogenic thiol: Reaction of 4-mercaltopyridine with thiosulfinates. Analytical Biochemistry 307, 76-83 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-2697(02)00010-6
  9. Bae, R, N. and S. K. Lee. 1990. Factors affecting browning and its control methods in chopped garlic. J Kor. Soc. Hort. Sci. 31, 213-218
  10. Freeman, G. G. and F. Mcbreen. 1973. A rapid spectrophotometric methods of determination of thiosulfinate in onion and its significance in flavor studies. Biochem. Soc. Trans 1, 1150-1154 https://doi.org/10.1042/bst0011150
  11. Lee, J. W., J. H. Do and K. H. Shim. 1999. Antioxidant activity of the water soluble browning reaction products isolated from Korean red ginseng, 1. DPPH radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging. J. Ginseng Res. 23,176-161
  12. Gutfinger, T. 1981. Polyphenols in olive oils. JAOCS 58, 966-967 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02659771
  13. Hwang, J. B., J. H. Ha, W. S. Park and Y. C. Lee. 2004. Changed of component on green discolored garlic. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 36, 1-8
  14. Choi, J. H., W. J. Kim, J. W. Yang, H. S. Sung and S. K. Hong. 1981. Quality changes in red ginseng extract during high temperature storage. J. Korean Agric. Chem. Soc. 24, 50-58
  15. Moreno, M. I. N., M. I. N. Isla, A. R. Sampietro and M. A. Vattuone. 2000. Comparison of the free radical scavenging activity of propolis from several region of Argentina. J. Enthropharmacology 71, 109-114 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(99)00189-0
  16. Sung, N. J., J. G. Kim, S. J. Lee and M. J. Chung. 1997. Changes in amino acis contents of low-salt fermented small shrimp during the fermentation. J. Inst. Agri. & Fishery Develop. Gyeongsang Nat'l. Univ. 16, 1-10
  17. Kim, M. H. and B. Y. Kim. 1990. Development of optimum processing conditions in air dried garlics using response surface methodology. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 19, 234-238
  18. Yu, T. H., C. M. Wu and Y. C. Liou. 1989. Volatile compounds from garlic. J. Agric. Food Chem. 37, 725-730 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00087a032
  19. Kim, Y. A. 1998. Effects of antibrowning agents on the browning reaction of enzymatic garlic hydrolyzate. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 27, 201-206
  20. Oyaizu, M. 1986. Studies on products of browning reactions: antioxidative activities of products of browning reaction prepared from glucosamine. Japanese J. Nutr. 44, 307-315 https://doi.org/10.5264/eiyogakuzashi.44.307
  21. Blois, M. S. 1958. Antioxidant determination by the use of a stable free radical. Nature 26, 1199-1200
  22. Kim, H. K., K. S. JO, D. B. Shin and I. H. Kim. 1987. Effects of phosphate complex treatment on the quality of dried garlic flakes. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 19, 75-80
  23. Lee, J. W., S. K. Lee, J. H. Do, H. S. Sung and K. H. Shim. 1995. Browning reaction of fresh ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) as affected by heating temperature. Korean J. Ginseng Sci. 19, 249-253
  24. Schwimmer, S. and W. J. Weston. 1961. Onion flavor and odor, Enzymatic development of pyruvic acid in onion as a measure of pungency. JAFC 9, 301-304 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf60116a018
  25. Cruess, W. V. 1944. Experiments on garlic and onion extracts. Fruit products J. 23, 305-313

Cited by

  1. Effect of Black Garlic and Herb Formulas on Lipid Profiles and Antioxidant Status in Rats by Interval Running Training vol.23, pp.12, 2013, https://doi.org/10.5352/JLS.2013.23.12.1436
  2. Changes in the quality characteristics and chemical compounds of garlic shoots for blanching vol.23, pp.3, 2016, https://doi.org/10.11002/kjfp.2016.23.3.310
  3. Analysis of Active Components of Giant Black Garlic vol.44, pp.11, 2015, https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2015.44.11.1672
  4. Effect of Red Garlic-Composites on the Fecal Lipid Level and Hepatic Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in Rats Fed a High Fat-Cholesterol Diet vol.42, pp.1, 2013, https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.1.017
  5. Physicochemical Properties, Biological Activity, Health Benefits, and General Limitations of Aged Black Garlic: A Review vol.22, pp.6, 2017, https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22060919
  6. Quality Characteristics of Ginger(Zingiber officinale Roscoe) as the Ripening Periods vol.27, pp.4, 2012, https://doi.org/10.13103/JFHS.2012.27.4.479
  7. Changes in quality characteristic of immature flat persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb) during heat treatment aging vol.23, pp.3, 2016, https://doi.org/10.11002/kjfp.2016.23.3.301
  8. Effects of the Aging Conditions on the Quality Characteristics of Garlic vol.28, pp.5, 2015, https://doi.org/10.9799/ksfan.2015.28.5.745
  9. A comparative study of the different analytical methods for analysis of S-allyl cysteine in black garlic by HPLC vol.46, pp.2, 2012, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2011.11.013
  10. Volatile Flavor Compounds in Commercial Black Garlic Extracts vol.41, pp.1, 2012, https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2012.41.1.116
  11. Study on the stability and antioxidant effect of the Allium ursinum watery extract vol.7, pp.1, 2013, https://doi.org/10.1186/1752-153X-7-21
  12. Physicochemical Properties and Biological Activities of Black Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Shoot vol.49, pp.1, 2015, https://doi.org/10.14397/jals.2015.49.1.189
  13. Biological Activities of Yellow Garlic Extract vol.44, pp.7, 2015, https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2015.44.7.983
  14. Characteristics and Sensory Optimization of Taro (Colocasia esculenta) under Different Aging Conditions for Food Application of Black Taro vol.48, pp.2, 2016, https://doi.org/10.9721/KJFST.2016.48.2.133
  15. Volatile distribution in garlic (Allium sativum L.) by solid phase microextraction (SPME) with different processing conditions vol.20, pp.3, 2011, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10068-011-0108-4
  16. Comparison of Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects between Fresh and Aged Black Garlic Extracts vol.21, pp.4, 2016, https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21040430
  17. Comparison of Antioxidant Activities of Black Onion Extracts vol.18, pp.6, 2011, https://doi.org/10.11002/kjfp.2011.18.6.954
  18. Evaluation of Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, Antithrombotic, and Antiobesity Activities in Cultured Edible Plants to Increase Farm Income vol.28, pp.1, 2017, https://doi.org/10.7856/kjcls.2017.28.1.29
  19. Quality Characteristics of Low-Salt and -Fat Meatball Added Black Garlic (Allium sativum L.) during Cold Storage vol.30, pp.6, 2010, https://doi.org/10.5851/kosfa.2010.30.6.1031
  20. Antifatigue Effect of Eel and Plant Mix Extracts during Aerobic Running Training in Sprague Dawley Rats vol.24, pp.7, 2014, https://doi.org/10.5352/JLS.2014.24.7.728
  21. Changes in S-allyl cysteine contents and physicochemical properties of black garlic during heat treatment vol.55, pp.1, 2014, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2013.05.006
  22. Physicochemical Characteristics of Red Garlic During Processing vol.18, pp.6, 2011, https://doi.org/10.11002/kjfp.2011.18.6.898
  23. Establishment of Extraction Conditions for the Optimization of the Black Garlic Antioxidant Activity Using the Response Surface Methodology vol.19, pp.4, 2012, https://doi.org/10.11002/kjfp.2012.19.4.577
  24. Antioxidant and Antiobesity Activity of Solvent Fractions from Red Garlic vol.22, pp.7, 2012, https://doi.org/10.5352/JLS.2012.22.7.950
  25. Physicochemical Composition of Baked Garlic vol.18, pp.4, 2011, https://doi.org/10.11002/kjfp.2011.18.4.575
  26. Quality characteristics and antioxidant activity of drink prepared with black garlic and Oenanthe javanica DC vol.21, pp.2, 2014, https://doi.org/10.11002/kjfp.2014.21.2.193
  27. Effect of Black Garlic and Gaeddongssuk (Artemisia annua L.) Extracts on the Lipid Profile and Hepatic Antioxidant Enzyme Activities of Exercised Rats vol.42, pp.6, 2013, https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.6.869
  28. Comparison of Volatile Flavor Compounds in Commercial Black Onion Extracts vol.21, pp.12, 2011, https://doi.org/10.5352/JLS.2011.21.12.1740