Antimutagenic and Cytotoxic Effects of an Ethanol Extract of Buckwheat Sprout

메밀싹 에탄올 추출물의 항돌연변이원성 및 암세포 성장억제 효과

  • Cui, Cheng-Bi (Department of Agriculture, Yanbian University) ;
  • Lee, Eui-Yong (R&D Team, Bakery Plant, CJ Corp.) ;
  • Ham, Seung-Shi (School of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Lee, Deuk-Sik (Department of Foodservice Industry, Hanzhong University)
  • 최승필 (연변대학 농학원 식품과학학부) ;
  • 이의용 (CJ(주) 베이커리공장 기술개발팀) ;
  • 함승시 (강원대학교 바이오산업공학부) ;
  • 이득식 (한중대학교 외식산업학과)
  • Published : 2008.09.30


This study was performed to determine the antimutagenic and anticancer effects of ethanol extract of buckwheat sprout using Ames test and SRB assay, respectively. An ethyl acetate fraction (200 ${\mu}/plate$) from the ethanol extract of buckwheat sprout showed inhibition rate of 80.6% against the mutagenesis induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) in Salmonella typhimurium TA100 strain. Also the ethyl acetate fraction (200 ${\mu}/plate$) showed higher antimutagenic activity than other fractions against the mutagenesis induced by 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO) in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100. In addition, the ethyl acetate fraction (200 ${\mu}/plate$) showed high antimutagenic effect of 80.9% and 85.9% against the mutation of TA98 and TA100 strains induced by 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido-(4,3-b)indol (Trp-P-1), respectively. The cytotoxic effects of each solvent fraction from the ethanol extract of buckwheat sprout against human cancer cell lines including lung carcinoma (A549), gastric carcinoma (AGS), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep3B), and colon adenocarcinoma (Colo 205) were investigated. The ethyl acetate fraction of buckwheat sprout ethanol extract at the concentration of 1.0 mg/ml showed strong cytotoxic activities of 70.3, 94.8, 79.6, 82.3, and 73.2% against A549, AGS, MCF-7, Hep3B and Colo 205 cancer cell lines, respectively.


  1. Lee, S. Y. (1997) History of buckwheat, Buckwheat 1, 3-6
  2. Choi, B. H., Kim, S. K., Park, K. Y. and Park, R. Y. (1995) Agronomic character and productivity of genetic resources in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) (in Korean). RDA, J. Agric. Sci. 37, 221-227
  3. Shibatr, S., Imal, T., Ghikubu, S. and Miyyahara, T. (1979) The composition of buckwheat flour of various varieties and cultivated at various periods. Rept. Nalt. Food Res.Inst. 34, 1-7
  4. Matsuhashi, T. (1984) Composition of buckwheat and buckwheat powder. New Food Industry 26, 54-58
  5. Griffith, J.Q., Couch, J.F. and Lindauer, M.A. (1995) Effect of rutin on increased capillary fragility in man. Proc. Soc. Exp. Bio. Med. 55, 228-229
  6. Matsubara, Y., Kumamoto, H., Lizuka, Y., Murakami, T., Okamoto, K., Miyake, H. and Yokoi, K. (1995) Structure and hypotensive effect of flavonoid glycosides in Citrus ubshiu peelings. Agric. Biol. Chem. 49, 900-905
  7. Lee, J.S., Park, S.J., Sung, K.S., Han, C.K., Lee, M.H., Jung, C.W. and Kwon, T.B. (2000) Effects of germinated-buckwheat on blood pressure, plasma glucose and lipid levels of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 32, 206-211
  8. He, J., Klag, M.J., Whelton, P.K., Mo, J.P., Chen, J.K., Qian, M.C., Mo, P.S. and He, G.Q. (1995) Oats and buckwheat intakes and cardiovascular disease risk factors in buckwheat intakes and cardiovascular disease risk factors in an ethnic minority of China. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 61, 366-372
  9. Hertog, M.G., K romhout, D., Aracanis, C., Blackburn, H., Buzina, E., Fidanza, F., Giampaoli, S., Jansen, A., Menotti, A., Nedeljkovic, S., Pekkarinen, M., Simic, B.S., Toshima, H., Feskens, E.J.M., Hollman, P.C.H. and Katan, M.B. (1995) Flavnoid intake and longterm risk of coronary heart disease and cancer in the countries study. Arch. Intern. Med. 155, 381-386
  10. Keli, S.O., Hertog, M.G.K., Freskens, E.J.M. and Kromhout, D. (1996) Dietary flavonoids, antioxidant vitamins, and incidence of stroke: The Zutpen study. Arch. Intern. Med. 154, 637-642
  11. Lee, J.S., Lee, M.H., Chang, Y.K., Ju, J.S. and Son, H.S. (1995) Effects of buckwheat diet on serum glucose and lipid metabolism in NIDDM. Korean J. Nutr. 28, 809-816
  12. Lee, J.S., Soo, S.S., Maeng, Y.S., Chang, Y.K. and Ju, J.S. (1994) Effects of buckwheat on organ on weight, glucose and lipid metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Korean J. Nutr. 27, 819-827
  13. Maeng, Y.S., Park, H.K. and Kwon, T.B. (1990) Analysis of rutin contents in buckwheat foods. Korean. J. Food Sci. Technol. 22, 732-737
  14. Kwon, T.B. (1994) Changes in rutin and fatty acids of buckwheat during germination. J. Food Nutr. 7, 124-127
  15. Lee, M.H., Woo, S.J., Oh, S.K. and Kwon, T.B. (1994) Changes in contents and composition of dietary fiber during buckwheat germination. J. Food Nutr. 7, 274-283
  16. Ikeda, K., Arioka, K., Fujii, S., Kusano, T. and Oku, M. (1984) Effect on buckwheat protein quality of seed germination and changes in trypsin inhibitor content. Cereal Chem. 61, 236-240
  17. Maron, D.M. and Ames, B.N. (1983) Revised methods for the Salmonella mutagenicity test. Mutation Res. 113, 173-215
  18. Martin, A. and Martin, C. (1997) Comparision of 5 microplate colorimetric assay for in vitro cytotoxicity testing and cell proliferation assays. Cytotechnology 11, 49-54
  19. Ham, S.S., Choi, K.P., Choi, Y.S. and Lee, S.Y. (1994) Studies on antimutagenic and lipotropic action of flavonoids of buckwheats. J. Korean Soc. Food Nutr. 23, 698-703
  20. Yoo, K.H., Kim, S.H., Ham, Y.A., Yoo, S.J., Oh, H.T. and Ham, S.S. (2006) Antimutagenic and cytotoxic effects of Fagopyrum esculentum Moenech noodles extracts. J. Korean Soc. Food Nutr. 35, 1291-1296
  21. Ham, S.S., Choi, G.P., Choi, Y.S. and Lee, S.Y. (1994) Antimutagenic study of buckwheat leaves ethanol extract. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. 23, 698-703
  22. Kwak, C.S., Lim, S.J., Kim, S.A., Park, S.C. and Lee, M.S. (2004) Antioxidative and antimutagenicity effects of Korean buckwheat, sorghum, millet and Job's tears. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 33, 921-929
  23. Kim, S.H., Lee, E.Y. and Ham, S.S. (2007) Antioxidation and antigenotoxic effects of buckwheat sprout extracts. J. Korean Soc. Food Nutr. 36, 955-959
  24. Ham, S.S., Lee, S.Y., Choi, M. and Hwang, H.J. (1998) Antimutagenicity and cytotoxicity effects of woorimil wheat flour extracts added with wila herb and seaweed powder. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 27, 1177-1182