A Study on the Bucket Loading Characteristics for Wheel-loader Loading Automation

휠로더 굴착 자동화를 위한 버킷 부하특성 연구

  • 서동관 (성균관대학교 대학원 기계공학과) ;
  • 서현재 (성균관대학교 대학원 기계공학과) ;
  • 강인필 (부경대학교 기계공학부) ;
  • 권영민 ((주)현대중공업) ;
  • 이상훈 ((주)현대중공업) ;
  • 황성호 (성균관대학교 기계공학부)
  • Published : 2009.11.01


The front end wheel loader is widely used for the loading of materials in mining and construction fields. It has repetitive digging, loading and dumping procedures. The bucket is subjected to large resistance force from the soil during scooping. We considered the soil reaction force characteristics from scooping procedure, the protection by overload and automatic scooping mode algorithm. The main topic of this paper is the analysis of the soil reaction force characteristics. The analysis of soil mechanics is carried out and the developed soil model is verified by experimental results from the simplified experimental equipment. A simplified model of the soil shape and bucket trajectory is used to determine the scooping direction based on an estimation of the resistance force applied on the bucket during the scooping motion. In the future, this model will be used for the generation of an appropriate path for the wheel loader automation.


Wheel Loader;Soil Model;Vector Sum Reaction Method;Loading Automation;Bucket Loading


  1. Don Carter and Andrew Alleyne, 2003, 'Load Modeling and Emulation for an Earthmoving Vehicle Powertrain,' Proceedings Of the American Control Conference Denver. Colorado june n4e- 6 ,IEEE, pp. 4963-4968
  2. Julyk, L.J., Marlow, R.S., Moore, C.J., Day, J.P. and Dyrness, A.D., 1993, 'Continuum Soil Modeling in the Static Analysis of Buried Structure,' 4th Department of Energy Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation Conference Atlanta, Georgia, pp. 1-7
  3. Sanjiv Singh, 1997, 'The of the Art in Automation of Earthmoving,' In ASCE Journal of Aerospace Engineering, Vol 10, No. 4, pp. 1-29
  4. SARATA Shigeru, 2001, 'Model-based Task Planning for Loading Operation in Mining,' International Conference on Intelligent Robots and System Maui, Hawaii, USA, pp 439-445
  5. SARATA Shigeru, KOYACHI Noriho, TUBOUCHI Takashi, OSUMI Hisashi, KURISU Masamitu and SUGAWARA Kazuhiro, 2006, 'Development of Autonomous System for Loading Operation by Wheel Loader,' International Symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction 2006, Tokyo, JAPAN, pp. 466-471
  6. SARATA Shigeru, OSUMI Hisashi, KAWAI Yoshihiro and TOMITA Fumiaki, 2004, 'Trajectorybased on Resistance Force and Shape of Pile at Scooping Motion,' International conference on Robotics & Automation, New Orleans, LA, pp. 3488-3493