Design Optimization of an Ozone Contactor Using Ozone Contactor Model (OCM) Software

Kim, Doo-Il;Lee, Chae-Young;Joe, Woo-Hyeun;Lee, Seock-Heon

  • Published : 2009.12.31


Designing an ozone contactor is complicated because the residual ozone, log C. parvum inactivation, and bromate formation should be optimized with fluctuating water quality. OCM software was developed to assist a plant designer or an operator to fulfill the sophisticated optimization required in the design or operation of a new or an existing plant. In this article, numerical simulations were carried out using the OCM software for the design of a new ozone contactor under diverse design factors (i.e., three pHs, three temperatures, low and high dispersion numbers, and four and ten cells with complete mixing) with kinetic parameters obtained from the sand-filter effluent of a water treatment plant treating water from the Paldang impoundment. The results of the simulation suggested that a high residual ozone concentration at low pH and low temperature would be challenging, and PFR-like hydrodynamics could lower the residual ozone concentration. The inactivation of C. parvum oocysts increased at a lower pH. A lower dispersion number and more cell division increased the inactivation efficiency. Bromate was instantaneously formed during the initial ozonation stage. The effluent concentration was much lower than the regulatory levels imposed by the USEPA because of the low bromide level in raw water.


Ozone contactor design;Residual ozone;Bromate;C. parvum oocyst; Numerical simulation


  1. Rennecker, J. L., Kim, J. H., Corona-Vasquez, B., Mariñas, B. J., “Role of disinfectant concentration and pH in the inactivation kinetics of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts with ozone and monochloramine,” Environmental Science & Technology, 35, 2752-2757 (2001)
  2. Gürek, L. L., Finch, G. R., Belosevic, M., “Modeling chlorine inactivation requirements of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts,” Journal of Environmental Engineering-ASCE, 123 (9), 865-875 (1997)
  3. von Gunten, U., Hoigne, J., “Bromate formation during ozonation of bromide-containing waters - Interaction of ozone and hydroxyl radical reactions,” Environmental Science & Technology, 28 (7), 1234-1242 (1994).
  4. Kim, J. H., von Gunten, U., Mariñas, B. J., “Simultaneous prediction of Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst inactivation and bromate formation during ozonation of synthetic waters,” Environmental Science & Technology, 38 (7), 2232-2241 (2004)
  5. Finch, G. R., Haas, C. N., Oppenheimer, J. A., Gordon, G., Trussell, R. R., “Design criteria for inactivation of Cryptosporidium by ozone in drinking water,” Ozone-Science & Engineering, 23 (4), 259-284 (2001)
  6. Kim, D. I., Hasan, S., Tang, G., Mariñas, B. J., Couillard, L., Shijkairy, H., Kim, J. H., “Simultaneous simulation of pathogen inactivation and bromate formation in full-scale ozone contactors by computer software”, Journal American Water Works Association, 99 (8), 77-91 (2007)
  7. Huang, T., Brouckaert, C. J., Docrat, M., Pryor, M., “A computational fluid dynamic and experimental study of an ozone contactor,” Water Science and Technology, 46 (9), 87-93 (2002)
  8. Huang, T. H., Brouckaert, C. J., Pryor, M., Buckley, C. A., “Application of computational fluid dynamics modelling to an ozone contactor,” Water SA, 30 (1), 51-56 (2004)
  9. Do-Quang, Z., Roustan, M., Duguet, J. P., “Mathematical modeling of theoretical Cryptosporidium inactivation in full-scale ozonation reactors,” Ozone-Science & Engineering, 22 (1), 99-111 (2000)
  10. Tang, G., Adu-Sarkodie, K., Kim, D., Kim, J. H., Teefy, S., Shukairy, H. M., Mariñas, B. J., “Modeling Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst inactivation and bromate formation in a full-scale ozone contactor,” Environmental Science & Technology, 39 (23), 9343-9350 (2005)
  11. Kim, D. I., “Development and application of integrated ozone contactor design and optimization tools,” Ph.D. Thesis, Atlanta, Georgia Institute of Technology (2007)
  12. Clark, R. M., Sivagenesan, M., Rice, E. W., Chen, J., “Development of a CT equation for the inactivation of Cryptosporidium oocysts with ozone,” Water Research, 36 (12), 3141-3149 (2002)
  13. Kim, J. H., Elovitz, M. S., von Gunten, U., Shukairy, H. M., Mariñas, B. J., “Modeling Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst inactivation and bromate in a flow-through ozone contactor treating natural water,” Water Research, 41 (2), 467-475 (2007)