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In-Vehicle Levels of Naphthalene and Monocyclic Aromatic Compounds According to Vehicle Type

Jo, Wan-Kuen;Lee, Jong-Hyo

  • Published : 2009.09.30

Abstract

Only limited information is available as regards to the exposure levels of naphthalene (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs) and monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(MAHs) in the interiors of diesel-fueled passenger cars, while many studies investigated the exposure levels of various volatile organic compounds(VOCs) in the interiors of gasoline-fueled passenger cars or public buses. Present study was performed to supplement this deficiency by measuring naphthalene (as a representative of PAHs) and MAHs levels inside five diesel-fueled and five gasoline-fueled passenger cars while morning and evening commuting on real roadways. Each car was surveyed five times on different sampling days. The in-vehicle naphthalene levels were higher for the diesel-fueled cars as compared to gasoline-fueled cars, whereas the results were reversed for the in-vehicle MAH levels. The median cabin levels of diesel-fueled cars were 1.3, 7, 13, 4, and 6 ${\mu}g/m^3$ for naphthalene, benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and m,pxylene, respectively. With respect to gasoline-fueled cars, their respective levels were 0.7, 11, 21, 7, and 9 ${\mu}g/m^3$ . The median MAHs concentration ratios of gasoline-fueled cars to diesel-fueled cars ranged from 1.50 to 1.75, while the median naphthalene concentration ratio was estimated to be 0.54. In addition, there was no significant difference of both naphthalene and MAHs between the diesel-fueled cars, but the in-vehicle levels were significantly different between gasoline-fueled cars. The concentration levels of both naphthalene and MAHs were higher in the passenger cars than other non-industrial microenvironments. Consequently, it was confirmed that the cabins of both diesel-fueled and gasoline-fueled passenger cars are an important microenvironment associated with the exposure to naphthalene and MAHs.

Keywords

Naphthalene;Gasoline;Diesel;Passenger car;Commuting

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