The Effects of Fermentated Ephedra sinica on Obese Rats Fed by High Fat Diet

발효마황이 고지방식이로 유발된 비만 흰쥐에 미치는 효과

  • Shin, Young-Jin (Dept. of Oriental Rehabilitation Medicine, College of Oriental Medicine, Dong-Guk University) ;
  • Kim, Ho-Jun (Dept. of Oriental Rehabilitation Medicine, College of Oriental Medicine, Dong-Guk University) ;
  • Lee, Myeong-Jong (Dept. of Oriental Rehabilitation Medicine, College of Oriental Medicine, Dong-Guk University) ;
  • Keum, Dong-Ho (Dept. of Oriental Rehabilitation Medicine, College of Oriental Medicine, Dong-Guk University)
  • 신영진 (동국대학교 한의과대학 한방재활의학과교실) ;
  • 김호준 (동국대학교 한의과대학 한방재활의학과교실) ;
  • 이명종 (동국대학교 한의과대학 한방재활의학과교실) ;
  • 금동호 (동국대학교 한의과대학 한방재활의학과교실)
  • Received : 2009.09.16
  • Accepted : 2009.10.14
  • Published : 2009.10.31


Objectives : This study was performed to investigate the effects of fermented Ephedra sinica (FMH) nano-extract compared Ephedra sinica (MH) on 3T3 L1 cell viability, lipid and glycometabolism, Obes rats' behavior and state-trait anxiety. Methods and materials : Each of 6 rats was divided into a normal diet, HFD, MH, and FMH. We fed a HFD group of rats a high fat diet and administered normal saline for 8 weeks. And we fed an experimental group of rats a high fat diet and administered an extract of Ephedra sinica and fermentated Ephedra sinica for 8 weeks. At the end of the experiment, the rats were sacrificed to determine their chemical composition. Ephedra sinica and fermentated Ephedra sinica was examined in effects of 3T3 L1 cell viability, lipid and glycometabolism, rats' behavior and state-trait anxiety. Results : 1. Ephedra sinica and fermentated Ephedra sinica didn't induce cytotoxicity at 3L3 L1 cell. 2. Fermentated Ephedra sinica by Lactococcus confusus inhibit $PPAR-{\gamma}$ activation and promote $TNF-{\alpha}$ activation. 3. In MH and FMH group, the body weight and FER decrease occured significantly than in HFD group. 4. No side effect of Ephedra sinica appeared in FMH group, so fermentated Ephedra sinica have a capacity of anti-anxiety. 5. Serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol and creatine of HFD+Ephedra sinica, HFD+LO group were decreased compared with that of HFD group. Decreasing rates of sample group was significant(p<0.05). 6. In both MH and FMH group serum HDL was increased(P>0.05). 7. In MH group only TG was decreased, but in FMH group total cholesterol, TG, and glucose were decreased(P>0.05). Conclusions : Fermentated Ephedra sinica by Lactococcus confusus was superior to Ephedra sinica in capacity of anti-obesity. Further fermentated Ephedra sinica have no Ephedra sinica's side effect.


Supported by : 한국연구재단


  1. 조호근. 방기와 마황의 투여가 비만유발 쥐의 생리기능과 DNA Chip을 통한 유전자 발현에 미치는 영향에 대한 연구. 동국대학교. 2007.
  2. 공병만. 백삼, 홍삼, 발효인삼 농축액의 이화학적특성 및 약리효능에 관한 연구. 2008. 경희대학교.
  3. Yong-Joon Jung, Dong-Oh Han, Bo-Hee Choi, Chul Park, Hyejung Lee, Sung Hoon Kim, Dae-Hyun Hahm. Effect of Fermented Herbal Extracts, HP-1 on Enzyme Activities and Gene Expressions Related to Alcohol Metabolism in Ethanol-loaded Rats. Korean J. Oriental Physiology & Pathology. 2007;21(2):387-91.
  4. Simon P., Soubrie P. Behavioral studies to differenciate anxiolytic and sedadive activity of the tranquilizing drugs. In Modern Problems of Pharmacopsyciatry. 1979;14:99-143.
  5. Walsh R., Cummins R. The Open-Field Test : a Critical Review. Psychological Bulletin. 1976;83(3):482-504.
  6. 송윤경, 임형호. 비만처방에서 마황의 임상활용에 대한 고찰 -용량, 효과, 부작용 등의 측면에서. 한방비만학회지. 2007;7(1):1-7.
  7. Shannon JR., Gottesdiener K., Jordan J. Acute effect of ephedrine on 24-h energy balance. Clinical Science.1999;96(5):43-91.
  8. David E. Oeser. Obesity Part 2:Pharmacotherapy. The Internet Journal of Academic Physician Assistants. 1997;1(2).
  9. White LM., Gardner SF., Gurley BJ. et al. Pharmacokinetics and cardiovascular effects of Ma-huang(Ephedra sinica)in normotensive adults. J Clin Pharmac. 1997;37:116-22.
  10. Haller CA., Benowitz NL. Adverse cardiovascular and central nervous system events associated with dietary supplements containing ephedra alkaloids. N Engl J Med. 2000;343(25):1833-8.
  11. Garrido-Polonio C., Garcia-Linares MC., Garcia -Arias MT., Lopez-Varela S., Garcia-Fernandez MC., Terpstra AH., Sanchez-Muniz FJ. Thermally oxidised sunflower-seed oil increases liver and serum peroxidation and modifies lipoprotein composition in rats. Br J Nutr. 2004;92(2) :257-65.
  12. 이시훈, 강은석, 이광은, 김하동, 최송희, 김대중, 안철우, 차봉수, 임승길, 이현철. 대사증후군의 위험인자로서 인슐린저항성. 대한내과학회지. 2002;63(1):54-60.
  13. 주영승. 운곡본촉학각론(上). 서울:서림제. 2004:20-6.
  14. Samenuk D., Link MS., Homoud MK., Contreras R., Theoharides TC., Wang PJ., Estes NA 3rd. Adversecar diovascular events temporally associated with mahuang,an herbalsource ofephedrine. Mayo Clin Proc. 2002;77(1):12-6.
  15. Grundy SM., Denke MA. Dietary influences on serum lipidsand lipoproteins. 1990;31(7) :1149-72.
  16. Gerhard Meisenberg, William H. Simmons. 의학생화학. 서울:정문각. 2005:407-67.
  17. 황미자, 신현대, 송미연. 2000년 이후 비만치료에 사용되는 處方및 本草에 대한 문헌연구 -麻黃을 중심으로. 한방비만학회지. 2007;7(1):39-54.
  18. 송미영, 김호준, 이명종. 비만처방에서의 안전한 마황사용 지침. 한방비만학회지. 2006;6(2):17-27.
  19. 원찬욱. 고지방식이 수컷 마우스 비만모델을 이용한 麻黃과 麻芋의 비만조절효과. 동의대 한의과대학 석사논문. 2008.
  20. 손미예, 남상해, 이상원. 젖산균과 청국균으로 발효시킨 용안육의 항산화,항암효과 및 일산화질소생성. 한국식품저장유통학회지. 2007;14(5):531-7.
  21. 이정운, 이영철, 김동현, 나혜숙, 마진열. 발효기법을 이용한 SD rat의 갱년기 비만 치료효과에 관한 연구. 한국임상약학회지. 2005;15(2):118-26.
  22. Lister RG. The use of aplus-maze to measure anxiety in mouse. Psychopharmacology(Berl). 1987;92:180-5.
  23. 송희옥. 마황이 Zuckerrats의 체중, 식욕, 혈액, 지방조직 및 지방대사 관련 유전자 변화에 미치는 영향. 경희대학교. 2006.
  24. Eun Kyung Park, Jin Hee Sung, Hien Trung Trinh, Eun Ah Bae, Hyung Kwon Yun, Seong Sig Hong, Dong Hyun Kim. Lactic acid bacterial fermentation increases the antiallergic effects of Ixeris dentate. Kor. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2008;18(2):308-13.
  25. 김동현, 이승원, 박주석, 장일성. 대장암모델 생쥐에 발효녹용의 발암 억제 효과. 경희약대논문집. 1995;23:93-5.
  26. 대한비만학회. 임상비만학 제3판. 고려의학. 2008:143-50.
  27. National Task Forceon the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity. Dieting and the development of eating disorders in over weight and obese adults. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2000; 160(17):2581-9.
  28. 김호준, 한창호, 이의주, 송윤경, 신병철, 김윤경. 비만치료 및 체중감량에서의 적절한 마황 사용에 대한 임상 진료지침 개발. 한방비만학회지. 2007;7(2):27-37.
  29. Dawson GR., Tricklebank MD. Use of the elevated plus maze in search for novel anxiolytic agents. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 1995;16:33-6.
  30. Astrup A., Toubro S. Thermogenic, metabolic and cardiovascular responses to ephedrine and caffeine in man. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1993;17:S41-3.
  31. Maglione M., Miotto K., Iguchi M., Jungvig L., Morton SC., Shekelle PG. Psychiatric effects of ephedrause:an analysis of Food and Drug Administration reports of adverse events. Am J Psychiatry. 2005;162(1):189-91.
  32. 한기훈. 대사증후군에서의 지방대사 이상. 심장과 혈관. 2003;5(4):21-7.
  33. 서영국. 어성초 즙 발효제품의 항산화 및 항알레르기 활성. 순천대학교. 2005.
  34. 박서영, 김재수, 이봉효, 임성철, 이세나, 임강현, 이경민. 상지, 상백피, 상엽 약침액의 발효 및 열처리 후 미백 효능에 관한 연구. 대한침구학회지. 2009;26(1):91-8.
  35. Sladowski D., SJ. Steer, RH. Clothier, M. Balls. An improved MTT assay. Journal of Immunological Methods. 1993;142:257-65.
  36. Soni MG., Carabin IG., Griffiths JC., Burdock GA. Safety of ephedra:lessons learned. Toxicol Lett. 2004;150(1):97-110.
  37. Rucker D., Padwal R., LiSK., Curioni C., Lau DC. Long term pharmacotherapy for obesity and overweight: updated meta-analysis. BMJ. 2007;335(7631):1194-9.
  38. 손미예. 버섯균사체로 발효시킨 복령과 후박이 항산화 및 항암효과. 한국식품영양과학회지. 2007;12(2):51-7.
  39. Wadden TA., Berkowitz RI., Womble LG., Sarwer DB., Arnld ME., Steinberg CM. Effects of sibutramine plus or listat in obese women following 1 year of treatment by sibutramine alone:a placebo-controlled trial. Obes Res. 2000;8(6):431-7.
  40. Auboeuf D., Reiusset J., Fajas L. Tissue distribution and quantification of the experssion of mRNAs of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and liver receptoralpha in humans. Diabetes. 1997;46:1319-27.
  41. 김호준. 지방세포 대사에 미치는 주요 호르몬의 작용. 대한한방비만학회지. 2001;1(1):1-11.
  42. 김동현. 녹용발효와 생리활성. 생약학회지. 1994;25(3):233-7.
  43. 전국한의과대학 본초학교실. 본초학. 서울:영림사. 1998:121-3.
  44. 오창호. 비만억제자인 ${\alpha}$-MSH 유사체의 합성 및 약효분석.신약개발연구개발사업 최종보고. 서울:보건복지부. 2003;21.
  45. Sandra LC., Sharpless KE., Satterfield MB., Ihara T., Phinney KW., Yen JH., Wise SA., Gay ML., Lam JW., McCooeye M., Gardner G., Fraser C., Sturgeon R., Roman M. Determination of ephedrine alkaloids in dietary suppelement standard reference materials. Anal Chem. 2005;77(10):101-12.
  46. 김공현, 박형종, 김병성, 채영회. 종합건강진단수진자의 비만지수에 따른 검사소견과의 관련성. 대한보건협회학술지. 1993;19(2):118-26.
  47. Porsolt RD., Le Pichon M., Jalfre M. Depression: anew animal model sensitive to antidepressant treatments. Nature. 1977;226(5604):730-2.
  48. SchafflerA., Moller-LadnerU., Scholmerich J., Buchler C. Role of AdiposeTissue as an Inflammatory Organ in Human Diseases. Endocr Rev. 2006;276(5):449-67.
  49. Braissant O., Foufelle F., Scotto C., Dauca M., Wahli W.D ifferential experssion of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs):tissue distribution of PPAR-alpha, -beta, and gamma in the adult rat. Endocrinology. 1996;137:354-66.
  50. Hashimoto T., Cook WS., QiC., Yeldan AV., Reddy JK., Rao MS. Defectin Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha-imducible fatty acid oxidation determines the severity of hepatic steatosis in response to fasting. J Biol. Chem. 2000;275:28918-28.
  51. 이영준. 마황이 비만쥐의 혈중지질 및 골격근내의 지방산 대사에 미치는 영향. 한방재활의학과학회지. 2005;15(3):113-25.
  52. 손정민, 노미라, 이영희, 임정현. 고콜레스테롤혈증 환자에 대한 영양치료요법의 임상 및 비용효과 분석. 대한영양사협회학술지. 2003;9(1):32-9.