Sensory Evaluation and Bioavailability of Red Ginseng Extract(Rg1, Rb1) by Complexation with ${\gamma}$-Cyclodextrin

${\gamma}$-cyclodextrin으로 포접한 홍삼추출물의 관능평가 및 Rg1, Rb1의 생체이용율

  • Published : 2009.02.28

Abstract

In order to reduce the bitter taste and improve the bioavailability of red ginseng extract(RGE), inclusion complexes (RGE-CD) of the extract with ${\alpha}-,\;{\beta}-,\;{\gamma}$-cyclodextrin were prepared and studied for their sensory quality and bioavailability compared to RGE. By complexation, the bitter taste-reducing efficacies of ${\alpha}$-CD and ${\beta}$-CD were much lower than that of ${\gamma}$-CD. In comparative sensory analysis for the bitter taste, RGE-${\gamma}$-CD10, prepared using 10%(w/w) of ${\gamma}$-CD, showed a score of 1.93(decreased by about 78%) compared to RGE as the control. In addition, in sensory analysis for flavor, RGE-${\gamma}$-CD10showed a score of 5.60. Upon increasing the amount of ${\gamma}$-CD to 15%(w/w) and 20%(w/w), respectively, the bitter taste of RGE-${\gamma}$-CD was removed and the flavor of RGE disappeared(scores of 2.67 and 1.67, respectively). Therefore RGE-${\gamma}$-CD10 was chosen as an optimum. The same dosages of RGE and RGE-${\gamma}$-CD10 were orally administered to SD(Sprague-Dawley) rats on a saponin basis, and the plasma concentrations of ginsenoside Rg1 and Rb1 were measured over time to estimate the average AUC(area under the plasma concentration versus time curve) of the ginsenosides. After the oral administration, there were no significant differences in the AUC values of the RGE and RGE-${\gamma}$-CD 10 groups for ginsenoside Rg1. However, AUC values for ginsenoside Rb1 were $25.8{\mu}g{\cdot}hr/mL$ in the RGE group and $81.5{\mu}g{\cdot}hr/mL$ in the RGE-${\gamma}$-CD 10 group, respectively. Therefore, the bioavailability of ginsenoside Rb1 in the RGE-${\gamma}$-CD 10 group was significantly higher by up to 315% compared with that in the RGE group(p = 0.0029). These results show that the bitter taste of RGE can be simultaneously removed by the complexation of RGE and ${\gamma}$-CD(RGE-${\gamma}$-CD) along with increased bioavailability.

Keywords

sensory evaluation;bioavailability;red ginseng extract;${\gamma}$-cyclodextrin;complexation

References

  1. Kim KH, Sung KS, Chang CC. Effects of the antioxidative components to ginsenoside in the liver of 40-week-old mice. J. Ginseng Res. 24: 162-167 (2000)
  2. Nam KY. The comparative understanding between and ginseng and white ginsengs processed ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer.). J. Ginseng Res. 29: 1-18 (2005) https://doi.org/10.5142/JGR.2005.29.1.001
  3. Xu QF, Fang XL, Chen DF. Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg1 from Panax notoginseng in rats. J. Ethnopharmacol. 84: 187-192 (2003) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(02)00317-3
  4. Li L, Sheng Y, Zhang J, Wang C, Guo D. HPLC determination of four active saponins from Panax notoginseng in rat serum and its application to pharmacokinetic studies. Biomed. Chromatogr. 18: 849-856 (2004) https://doi.org/10.1002/bmc.400
  5. Wang Y, Hao Y, Qiu Q. Effect of ginsenoside Rg1 and Rh1 on the function of dendritic cell stimulating the proliferation of T cell and anti-tumor activity of LPAK. Chinese J. Immunol. 19:248-252 (2003)
  6. Cheng Y, Shen LH, Zhang JT. Anti-amnestic and anti-aging effects of ginsenoside Rg1 and Rb1 and its mechanism of action. Acta Pharmacol. Sin. 26: 143-149 (2005) https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-7254.2005.00034.x
  7. Park JW, Han IS, Suh SI, Baek WK, Suh MH, Bae JH, Choe BK. Effects of ginseng saponin on the cytokine gene expression in human immune system. Korean J. Ginseng Sci. 20: 15-22 (1996)
  8. Luo YM, Cheng XJ, Yuan WX. Effects of ginseng root saponins and ginsenoside Rb1 on immunity in cold water swim stress mice and rats. Acta Pharmacol. Sin. 14: 401-404 (1993)
  9. Suzuki T, Matsuzaki T, Hagiwara H, Aoki T, Tajika-Takahashi Y, Takata K. Apical localization of sodium-dependent glucose transporter SGLT1 is maintained by cholesterol and microtubules. Acta Histochem. Cytoc. 39: 155-161 (2006) https://doi.org/10.1267/ahc.06024
  10. Park HJ, Park KM, Rhee MH, Song YB, Choi KJ, Lee JH, Kim SC, Park KH. Effect of ginsenoside Rb1 on rat liver phosphoproteins induced by carbon tetrachloride. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 19: 834-838 (1996) https://doi.org/10.1248/bpb.19.834
  11. Hasegawa, H, Uchiyama, M. Antimetastatic efficacy of orally administered ginsenoside Rb1 in dependence on intestinal bacterial hydrolyzing potential and significance of treatment with an active bacterial metabolite. Planta Med. 64: 696-700 (1998) https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2006-957560
  12. Szejtli J. Introduction and general overview of cyclodextrin chemistry. Chem. Rev. 98: 1743-1753 (1998) https://doi.org/10.1021/cr970022c
  13. Liu M, Zhang JT. Immunoregulatory effects of ginsenoside Rg1 in aged rats. Acta Sinic. 30: 818-823 (1995)
  14. Martin Del Valle EM. Cyclodextrins and their uses: A review. Process Biochem. 39: 1033-1046 (2003) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0032-9592(03)00258-9
  15. Joo HK, Cho KS. Studies on the extracting methods of ginseng extract and saponins in Panax ginseng. J. Ginseng Sci. 3: 40-53 (1979)
  16. Wang B, Liu J, Zhu L. Effect of compatibility on the pharmacokinetic characteristics of ginsenoside. Colloid Surface B 41: 219-222 (2005) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2004.12.016
  17. Hasegawa H, Sung JH, Matsumiya S, Uchiyama M. Main ginseng saponin metabolites formed by intestinal bacteria. Planta Med. 62: 453-457 (1996) https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2006-957938
  18. Shin YW, Kim DH. Antipruritic effect of ginsenoside Rb1 and compound K in scratching behavior mouse models. J. Pharmacol. Sci. 99: 83-88 (2005) https://doi.org/10.1254/jphs.FP0050260
  19. Kim DW, Shin WS, Lee JY, Kim BS, Cho GS, Yu SY. Experimental studies on the effect of ginsenoside Rg1 mixtures in an isolated rat heart after ischemic arrest and reperfusion. Korean J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 31: 567-575 (1998)
  20. Deng HL, Zhang JT. Anti-lipid peroxidative effect of ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg1. Chinese Med. J. 101: 395-398 (1991)
  21. Hirayama F, Uekama K. Cyclodextrin-based controlled drug release system. Adv. Drug Deliver. Rev. 36: 125-141 (1999) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-409X(98)00058-1
  22. Akao T, Kida H, Kanaoka M, Hattori M, Kobashi K. Intestinal bacterial hydrolysis is required for the appearance of compound kin rat plasma after oral administration of ginsenoside Rb1 from Panax ginseng. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 50: 1155-1160 (1998) https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-7158.1998.tb03327.x
  23. Lee PS, Han JY, Song TW, Sung JH, Kwon OS, Song S, Chung YB. Physiochemical characteristics and bioavailability of a novel intestinal metabolite of ginseng saponin (IH901) complexed with b-cyclodextrin. Int. J. Pharm. 316: 29-36 (2006) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2006.02.035
  24. Xie JT, Mehendale SR, Li X, Quigg R, Wang X, Wang CZ, Wu JA, Aung HH, Rue PA, Bell GI, Yuan CS. Anti-diabetic effect of ginsenoside Re in ob/ob mice. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1740:319-325 (2005) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbadis.2004.10.010
  25. Chen XC, Zhu YG, Wang XZ, Zhu LA, Huang C. Protective effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on dopamine-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells. Acta Pharmacol. Sin. 22: 673-678 (2001)
  26. Ikuo S. In vivo anti-metastatic action of ginseng saponins is based on their intestinal bacterial metabolites after oral administration. J. Ginseng Res. 31: 1-13 (2007) https://doi.org/10.5142/JGR.2007.31.1.001
  27. Odani T, Tanizawa H, Takino Y. Studies on the absorption, distribution, excretion and metabolism of ginseng saponins III. The absorption, distribution, and excretion of ginsenoside Rg1 in the rat. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 31: 1059-1066 (1983) https://doi.org/10.1248/cpb.31.1059
  28. Park JD. Recent studies on the chemical constituents of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer). Korean J. Ginseng Sci. 20:389-415 (1996)
  29. Kim KO, Kim SS, Sung NK, Lee YC. Sensory evaluation and application, Shin Gwang, Seoul, Korea. pp. 95-130, pp. 250-337. (1993)
  30. Adam D, Howard RM. Sensory characteristics of foods: New evaluation techniques. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 42: 924-931 (1985)
  31. Lee SH, Kim YH, Yu HJ, Cho NS, Kim TH, Kim DC, Chung CB, Hwang YI, Kim KH. Enhanced bioavailability of soy isoflavone by complexation with β-cyclodextrin in rats. Biosci. Biotec. Bioch. 71: 2927-2933 (2007) https://doi.org/10.1271/bbb.70296
  32. Kitagawa I, Yoshicawa M, Yoshihara M, Hayashi T, Taniyama T. Chemical studies of crude drugs(1).Constituents of ginseng radixrubra. Yakugaku Zasshi 103: 612-622 (1983)
  33. Odani T, Tanizawa H, Takino Y. Studies on the absorption, distribution, excretion and metabolism of ginseng saponins II. The absorption, distribution and excretion of ginsenoside Rg1 in the rat. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 31: 292-298 (1983) https://doi.org/10.1248/cpb.31.292
  34. Shin HR, Kim JY, Yun TK, Morgan G, Vainio H. The cancer-preventive potential of Panax ginseng: A review of human and experimental evidence. Cancer Cause Control 11: 565-576 (2000) https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008980200583
  35. Cheng JL, Zhou LM, Guan XL, Kuang XH, Zhu L. The protective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 and Rb1 against damage of HaCaT cells by ultrabiolet B. Acta. SinicPharm. 41: 905-908 (2006)