Alterations in Membrane Transport Function and Cell Viability Induced by ATP Depletion in Primary Cultured Rabbit Renal Proximal Tubular Cells

  • Lee, Sung-Ju (Department of Physiology, MRC for Ischemic Tissue Regeneration, College of Medicine, Pusan National University) ;
  • Kwon, Chae-Hwa (Department of Physiology, MRC for Ischemic Tissue Regeneration, College of Medicine, Pusan National University) ;
  • Kim, Yong-Keun (Department of Physiology, MRC for Ischemic Tissue Regeneration, College of Medicine, Pusan National University)
  • Published : 2009.02.28

Abstract

This study was undertaken to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of ATP depletion-induced membrane transport dysfunction and cell death in renal proximal tubular cells. ATP depletion was induced by incubating cells with 2.5 mM potassium cyanide(KCN)/0.1 mM iodoacetic acid(IAA), and membrane transport function and cell viability were evaluated by measuring $Na^+$-dependent phosphate uptake and trypan blue exclusion, respectively. ATP depletion resulted in a decrease in $Na^+$-dependent phosphate uptake and cell viability in a time-dependent manner. ATP depletion inhibited $Na^+$-dependent phosphate uptake in cells, when treated with 2 mM ouabain, a $Na^+$ pump-specific inhibitor, suggesting that ATP depletion impairs membrane transport functional integrity. Alterations in $Na^+$-dependent phosphate uptake and cell viability induced by ATP depletion were prevented by the hydrogen peroxide scavenger such as catalase and the hydroxyl radical scavengers(dimethylthiourea and thiourea), and amino acids(glycine and alanine). ATP depletion caused arachidonic acid release and increased mRNA levels of cytosolic phospholipase $A_2(cPLA_2)$. The ATP depletion-dependent arachidonic acid release was inhibited by $cPLA_2$ specific inhibitor $AACOCF_3$. ATP depletion-induced alterations in $Na^+$-dependent phosphate uptake and cell viability were prevented by $AACOCF_3$. Inhibition of $Na^+$-dependent phosphate uptake by ATP depletion was prevented by antipain and leupetin, serine/cysteine protease inhibitors, whereas ATP depletion-induced cell death was not altered by these agents. These results indicate that ATP depletion-induced alterations in membrane transport function and cell viability are due to reactive oxygen species generation and $cPLA_2$ activation in renal proximal tubular cells. In addition, the present data suggest that serine/cysteine proteases play an important role in membrane transport dysfunction, but not cell death, induced by ATP depletion.

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