Effects of Freeze-dried Citrus Peel on Feed Preservation, Aflatoxin Contamination and In vitro Ruminal Fermentation

Nam, I.S.;Garnsworthy, P.C.;Ahn, Jong Ho

  • Received : 2008.07.28
  • Accepted : 2008.12.08
  • Published : 2009.05.01


The objective of this study was to investigate antimicrobial activity, during the storage period, of animal feed and any effects on in vitro rumen digestion by supplementing different levels (5.55, 11.1, and 22.2 g/kg) of freeze dried citrus peel (FDCP) to the feed compared to untreated feed and feed treated with an antifungal agent (AA) at 0.05 g/kg. In a preservation test, feed supplemented with FDCP showed no deterioration over 21 days. Untreated feed and AA-treated feed, however, showed signs of deterioration after 16 days storage. Yellow colour and red colour, measured by spectro chromameter, decreased in the untreated and AA-treated feeds, but not in feed supplemented with FDCP. Aflatoxin was detected in untreated and AA-treated feeds at 16 days (8 ppb and 2 ppb) and 21 days (8 ppb and 4 ppb), but aflatoxin was not detected in the feed supplemented with FDCP. In a second experiment, fermentation by rumen microorganisms of FDCP (22.2 g/kg) and AA (0.05 g/kg) supplemented feeds was studied in vitro. Feeds were incubated with buffered rumen fluid for 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, and 48 h. Dry matter digestibility (DMD) and organic matter digestibility (OMD) were affected by treatment, but ammonia-N, total, and individual volatile fatty acids (VFA) were not adversely affected by treatment. In conclusion, the results indicated that FDCP might be useful for inhibiting microbial growth of animal feed during storage without disrupting rumen fermentation.


Antimicrobial Activity;Citrus Peel;Aflatoxin;Rumen Digestion


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