Carcass Characteristics and Chemical Composition of the Longissimus Muscle of Nellore, Caracu and Holstein-friesian Bulls Finished in a Feedlot

Rotta, Polyana Pizzi;do Prado, Ivanor Nunes;do Prado, Rodolpho Martin;Moletta, Jose Luiz;Silva, Roberio Rodrigues;Perotto, Daniel

  • Received : 2008.09.21
  • Accepted : 2009.01.02
  • Published : 2009.04.01


This work was carried out to study the carcass characteristics, the chemical composition and the fatty acid profile in Longissimus muscle (LM) of bull breeds Nellore, NEL (11), Caracu, CAR (12) and Holstein-Friesian, HFR (12) finished in a feedlot. The bulls were fed twice a day with corn silage, cotton meal, cracked corn, urea, limestone and mineral salt. NEL and CAR bulls had similar (p>0.05) final weight and hot carcass weight. However, NEL and CAR bulls had higher (p<0.05) final weight and hot carcass weight than HFR bulls. Carcass hot dressing, carcass conformation, cushion thickness, Longissimus muscle area and texture were similar (p>0.05) among NEL, CAR and HFR bulls. NEL and HFR bulls had higher (p<0.05) carcass length in comparison to the CAR breed. Nellore breed had higher (p<0.05) leg length in comparison to CAR and HFR breeds. Leg length was similar (p>0.05) between CAR and HFR breeds. Thickness fat, color and marbling score were lower (p<0.05) in NEL breed in comparison to CAR and HFR breeds. LM of NEL bulls had higher (p<0.05) meat moisture content in comparison to CAR and HFR bulls. In contrast, lipid content was lower (p<0.10) in HFR bulls. LM ash and crude protein contents were similar (p>0.05) among breeds. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) were higher (p<0.10) in HFR animals. Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), n-6, n-3 and PUFA/SFA ratio were similar (p>0.05) among the different breeds. N-6/n-3 ratio was higher (p<0.05) in CAR animals.


Beef;Breed;Carcass;Chemical Composition;Longissimus Muscle


  1. Anualpec, 2007. Anu$\acute{a}$rio da Pecu$\acute{a}$ria Brasileira. S$\tilde{a}$o Paulo: Institute FNP, 2007. p. 368
  2. Bauman, D. E., L. H. Baumgard, B. A. Corl and J. M. Griinari. 1999. Biosynthesis of conjugated linoleic acid in ruminant. Proceedings of the American Society of Animal Science
  3. Greghi, M. E., F. C. Vieira, N. Ruiz, J. V. Visentainer, I. N. Prado and N. E. Souza. 2003. Effects of slaughter weight on the muscle fatty acids compositions of subcutaneous and intramuscular lipids of Dutch steers. An. Assoc. Bras. Qu$\acute{i}$m. 52:129-133
  4. ISO (International Organization for Standardization). 1978. Animal and vegetable fats and oils-Preparation of metyl esters of fatty acids. ISO 5509, 01-06
  5. Milinsk, M. C., R. G. Padre, C. Hayasgi, C. C. Oliveira, J. V. Visentainer and N. E. Souza. 2005. Effects of feed protein and lipid contents on fatty acid profile of snail (Helix aspersa maxima) meat. J. Food Compos. Anal. 19:212-216
  6. Moreira, F. B., N. E. Souza, M. Matsushita, I. N. Prado and W. G. Nascimento. 2003. Evaluation of carcass characteristics and meat chemical composition of Bos indicus×Bos taurus crossbred steers finished in pasture systems. Braz. Arch. Biol. Techn. 46: 609-616
  7. NRC. 1996. Nutrient requirements of beef cattle. 7th ed. Nat. Acad. Press, Washington, DC
  8. Padre, R. G., J. A. Aricetti, F. B. Moreira, I. Y. Mizubuti, I. N. Prado, J. V. Visentainer, N. E. Souza and M. Matsushita. 2006. Fatty acid profile, and cheminal composition of Longissimus muscle of bovine steers and bulls finished in pasture system. Meat Sci. 74:242-248
  9. Padre, R. G., J. A. Aricetti, S. T. M. Gomes, R. H. T. B. Goes, F. B. Moreira, I. N. Prado, J. V. Visentainer, N. E. Souza and M. Matsushita. 2007. Analysis of fatty acids in Longissimus muscle of steers of different genetic breeds finished in pasture systems. Livest. Sci. 110:57-63
  10. Pensel, N. 1998. The future of meat in human diets. Nutr. Abstr. Rev. (Series A) 68:1-4
  11. Perotto, D., J. L. Moletta, J. E. P. Oliveira and C. Lesskiu. 2000. Feed intake and feed:gain ratio of Charolais, Caracu and reciprocal crossbred males in finished in feedlot. Braz. J. Anim. Sci. 29:108-116
  12. Rule, D. C., M. D. Macneil and R. E. Short. 1997. Influence of sire growth potential, time on feed, and growing-finishing strategy on cholesterol and fatty acids of ground carcass and Longissimus muscle of beef steers. J. Anim. Sci. 75:1525-1533
  13. Webb, E. C. 2006. Manipulating beef quality through feeding. South Afr. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 7:1-24
  14. Maggioni, D., J. A. Marques, D. Perotto, P. P. Rotta, T. Ducatti, M. Matsushita, R. R. Silva and I. N. Prado. 2009. Bermuda grass hay or sorghum silage with or without yeast addition on performance and carcass characteristics of crossbred young bulls finished in feedlot. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 22:206-215
  15. CIOMS/OMS. 1985. Council for International Organizations of Medical Services. WHO Distribuition and sales service, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland, International Guiding Principles for Biomedical Research Involving Animals
  16. M$\ddot{u}$ller, L. 1980. Normas para avalia$\c{c}$$\tilde{a}$o de carca$\c{c}$as e concurso de carca$\c{c}$as de novilhos. Santa Maria: Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, p. 31
  17. Prado, I. N., R. M. Prado, P. P. Rotta, J. V. Visentainer, J. L. Moletta and D. Perotto. 2008b. Carcass characteristics and chemical composition of the Longissimus muscle of crossbred bulls (Bos taurus indicus vs. Bos taurus taurus) finished in feedlot. J. Anim. Feed Sci. 17:295-306
  18. Cunnif, P. A. 1998. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International (6th ed.). Arlington: Association of Official Analytical Chemists
  19. Prado, I. N., R. H. Ito, J. M. Prado, I. M. Prado, P. P. Rotta, M. Matsushita, J. V. Visentainer and R. R. Silva. 2008a. The influece of dietary soyabean and linseed on the chemical composition and fatty acid profile of the Longissimus muscle of feedlot-finished bulls. J. Anim. Feed Sci. 17:307-317
  20. Gesualdi, Jr. A., A. C. Queiroz, F. D. Resende, G. F. Alleoni, A. G. Razook, L. A. Figueiredo, C. L. S. Gesualdi and E. Detmann. 2006. Production and bioeconomic efficiency of Nellore and Caracu bulls selected to weight gain and fed ad libitum or restricted. Braz. J. Anim. Sci. 35:576-583
  21. Enser, M., K. Hallett, B. Hewitt, G. A. F. Fursey and J. D. Wood. 1996. Fatty acid content and composition of English beef, lamb and pork at retail. Meat Sci. 42:443-456
  22. Macedo, L. M., I. M. Prado, J. M. Prado, P. P. Rotta, R. M. Prado, N. E. Souza and I. N. Prado. 2008. Chemical composition and fatty acids profile of five carcass cuts of crossbred heifers finished in feedlot. Semina 29:599-610
  23. SAS Institute. 2000. $SAS/STAT^{{\circledR}}$. User's guide: statistics, version 8.1. 4. ed., v.2, Cary: SAS Institute
  24. Katan, M. B., P. L. Zock and R. P. Mensink. 1994. Effects of fats and fatty acid on blood lipids in humans: on review. Amer. J. Clin. Nutr. 60 (Suppl. 1):1017-1022
  25. Kazama, R., L. M. Zeoula, I. N. Prado, D. C. Silva, T. Ducatti and M. Matsushita. 2008. Quantitative and qualitative carcass characteristics of heifers fed different energy sources on a cottonseed hulls and soybean hulls based diet. Braz. J. Anim. Sci. 37:350-357
  26. Rowe, A., F. A. F. Macedo, J. V. Visentainer, N. E. Souza and M. Matsushita. 1999. Muscle composition and fatty acid profile in lambs fattened in dry-lot or pasture. Meat Sci. 51:283-288
  27. Macedo, L. M., I. M. Prado, T. Ducatti, J. M. Prado, M. Matsushita and I. N. Prado. 2007. Performance, carcass characteristics and chemical composition of no pregnant or pregnant heifers finished in feedlot. Acta Scient. Anim. Sci. 29:425-432
  28. Prado, I. N., J. A. Aricetti, P. P. Rotta, R. M. Prado, D. Perotto, J. V. Visentainer and M. Matsushita. 2008d. Carcass characteristics, chemical composition and fatty acid profile of the Longissimus muscle of bulls (Bos Taurus indicus vs. Bos Taurus Taurus) finished in pasture systems. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 21:1449-1457
  29. Hu, F. B. 2001. The balance between $\omega$-6 ans $\omega$-3 fatty acids and the risk of coronary heart disease. Nutr. 17:741-742
  30. Kwiterovich, P. O. 1997. The effect of dietary fat, antioxidants, and prooxidants on blood lipids, lipoproteins, and athecosclerosis. J. Amer. Diet. Assoc. 97 (Suppl.):31-41
  31. Prado, I. N., P. P. Rotta, R. M. Prado, J. V. Visentainer, J. L. Moletta and D. Perotto. 2008c. Carcass characteristics and chemical composition of the Longissimus muscle of Puruna and 1/2 Puruna vs. 1/2 Canchin bulls. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 21:1296-1302
  32. Saucier, L. 1999. Meat safety: challenges for the future. Nutr. Abstr. Rev. (Series A), 69:705-708
  33. Aricetti, J. A., P. P. Rotta, R. M. Prado, D. Perotto, J. L. Moletta, M. Matsushita and I. N. Prado. 2008. Carcass characteristics, chemical composition and fatty acid profile of Longissimus muscle of bulls and steers finished in a pasture system. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 21:1441-1448
  34. Abrahao, J. J. S., I. N. Prado, D. Perotto and J. L. Moletta. 2005. Effect of replacing corn by increasing levels of cassava starch by-products on carcass characteristics and meat for young bulls. Braz. J. Anim. Sci. 34:1640-1650
  35. Bligh, E. G. and W. J. Dyer. 1959. A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Can. J. Bioch. Phys. 37:911-917

Cited by

  1. Corn silage with and without enzyme-bacteria inoculants on performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality in feedlot finished crossbred bulls vol.41, pp.1, 2012,
  2. Carcass characteristics, chemical composition and fatty acid profile of longissimus muscle of young bulls from four genetic groups finished in feedlot vol.41, pp.2, 2012,
  3. Qualitative characteristics of meat from confined crossbred heifers fed with lipid sources vol.69, pp.5, 2012,
  4. Growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of finishing bulls fed crude glycerin-supplemented diets vol.56, pp.2, 2013,
  5. Perfil de ácidos graxos da carne de novilhos europeus e zebuínos alimentados com milheto vol.49, pp.1, 2014,
  6. Carcass Composition and Cuts of Bulls and Steers Fed with Three Concentrate Levels in the Diets vol.28, pp.9, 2015,
  7. Effects of glycerin and essential oils (Anacardium occidentale and Ricinus communis) on the meat quality of crossbred bulls finished in a feedlot vol.56, pp.12, 2016,
  8. Milk fatty acid variability and association with polymorphisms in SCD1 and DGAT1 genes in White Fulani and Borgou cattle breeds pp.1573-4978, 2018,


Supported by : CNPq