The Influence of Attachment Type on the Distribution of Occlusal Force in Implant Supported Overdentures

하악 임플란트 오버덴쳐에서 어태치먼트 종류에 따른 응력분포

  • Sung, Chai-Ryun (Department of Prosthodontics, College of Dentistry, Dankook University) ;
  • Cho, In-Ho (Department of Prosthodontics, College of Dentistry, Dankook University)
  • 성채련 (단국대학교 치과대학 치과보철학 교실) ;
  • 조인호 (단국대학교 치과대학 치과보철학 교실)
  • Received : 2009.08.05
  • Accepted : 2009.12.25
  • Published : 2009.12.31

Abstract

Statement of problem: Implant supported overdenture is accepted widely as a way to restore edentulous ridge providing better retention and support of dentures. Various types of attachment for overdenture have been developed. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of attachment type in implant overdentures on the biomechanical stress distribution in the surrounding bone, prosthesis and interface between implant and bone. Material and methods: Finite element analysis method was used. Average CT image of mandibular body(Digital $Korea^{(R)}$, KISTI, Korea) was used to produce a mandibular model. Overdentures were placed instead of mandibular teeth and 2mm of mucosa was inserted between the overdenture and mandible. Two implants($USII^{(R)}$, Osstem, Korea) were placed at both cuspid area and 4 types of overdenture were fabricated ; ball and socket, Locator, magnet and bar type. Load was applied on the from second premolar to second molar tooth area. 6 times of finite element analyses were performed according to the direction of the force $90^{\circ}$, $45^{\circ}$, $0^{\circ}$ and unilateral or bilateral force applied. The stress at interface between implants and bone, and prosthesis and the bone around implants ware compared using von Mises stress. The results were explained with color coded graphs based on the equivalent stress to distinguish the force distribution pattern and the site of maximum stress concentration. Results: Unilateral loading showed that connection area between implant fixture and bar generated maximum stress in bar type overdentures. Bar type produced 100 Mpa which means the most among 4 types of attachments. Bilateral loading, however, showed that bar type was more stable than other implants(magnet, ball and socket). 26 Mpa of bar type was about a half of other types on overdenture under $90^{\circ}$ bilateral loading. Conclusions: In any directions of stress, bar type was proved to be the most vulnerable type in both implants and overdentures. Interface stress did not show any significant difference in stress distribution pattern.

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