Volatile Compounds of Orange Wines Produced with and without Peel Contact

  • Fan, Gang (College of Food Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University) ;
  • Yao, Xiaolin (College of Food Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University) ;
  • Xu, Yongxia (College of Food Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University) ;
  • Li, Huanhuan (College of Food Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University) ;
  • Fu, Hongfei (College of Food Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University) ;
  • Wang, Kexing (College of Food Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University) ;
  • Pan, Siyi (College of Food Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University)
  • Published : 2009.12.31


The present study focused on the effects of peel contact on the volatile compounds of orange wines. The volatile compounds were analyzed by sensory and instrumental analyses. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was used for extraction of volatile compounds. A total of 19 and 27 volatile compounds were identified in without and with peel contact wines respectively. Esters were quantitatively the dominant group of volatile compounds in without peel contact wines, while terpenes were the most abundant compounds in peel contact wines. Totally 11 and 14 new formed compounds were found in without and with peel contact wines, mainly were esters, alcohols, and acids. According to sensory analysis, the peel contact wine showed a more citrus-like and fruity aroma than the wines without peel contact.


  1. Nisperos-Carriedo MO, Shaw PE. Comparison of volatile flavour components in fresh and processed orange juices. J. Agr. Food Chem. 38: 1048-1052 (1990) https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00094a029
  2. Selli S, Cabaroglu T, Canbas A. Flavour components of orange wine made from a Turkish cv. Kozan. Int. J. Food Sci. Tech. 38: 587-593 (2003) https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2621.2003.00691.x
  3. Selli S, Canbas A, Cabaroglu T, Erten H, Lepoutre JP, Gunata Z. Effect of skin contact on the free and bound aroma compounds of the white wine of Vitis vinifera L. cv Narince. Food Control 17: 75-82 (2006) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2004.09.005
  4. Selli S, Canbas A, Unal U. Effect of bottle colour and storage conditions on browning of orange wine. Nahrung 46: 64-67 (2002) https://doi.org/10.1002/1521-3803(20020301)46:2<64::AID-FOOD64>3.0.CO;2-J
  5. Haixia Z, Ying S, Qingna Z, Yili C. Applying 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) method to analyzing the content of potato reducing sugar. Chinese Potato 19: 266-269 (2005)
  6. Garde-Cerdan T, Ancin-Azpilicueta C. Effect of the addition of different quantities of amino acids to nitrogen-deficient must on the formation of esters, alcohols, and acids during wine alcoholic fermentation. LWT- Food Sci. Technol. 41: 501-510 (2008) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2007.03.018
  7. Tunder D, Petersen MA, Poll L, Olsen CE. Discrimination between freshly made and stored reconstituted orange juice using GC odour profiling and aroma values. Food Chem. 61: 223-229 (1998) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(97)00097-6
  8. Satora P, Sroka P, Duda-Chodak A, Tarko T, Tuszynski T. The profile of volatile compounds and polyphenols in wines produced from dessert varieties of apples. Food Chem. 111: 513-519 (2008) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.04.007
  9. Jordan MJ, Goodner KL, Laencina J. Deaeration and pasteurization effects on the orange juice aromatic fraction. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 36: 391-396 (2003) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0023-6438(03)00041-0
  10. Selli S, Canbas A, Varlet V, Kelebek H, Prost C, Serot T. Characterization of the most odor-active volatiles of orange wine made from a Turkish cv. Kozan (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck). J. Agr. Food Chem. 56: 227-234 (2008) https://doi.org/10.1021/jf072231w
  11. Ough CS, Amerine MA. Methods for Analysis of Musts and Wines. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, NY, USA. pp. 206-210 (1988)
  12. Shaw PE. Fruit II. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, NY, USA. pp. 305-328 (1991)
  13. Rapp A, Mandery H. Wine aroma. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 42: 873-884 (1986) https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01941764
  14. Gomez-Ariza JL, Garcia-Barrera T, Lorenzo F. Determination of flavour and off-flavour compounds in orange juice by on-line coupling of a pervaporation unit to gas chromatography–.mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. A 1047: 313-317 (2004)
  15. Ahmed EM, Denninson RA, Dougherty RH, Shaw PE. Effect of non-volatile orange juice components, acid, sugar, and pectin on the flavour threshold of d-limonene in water. J. Agr. Food Chem. 26: 192-194 (1978) https://doi.org/10.1021/jf60215a073
  16. Genovese A, Gambuti A, Piombino P, Moio L. Sensory properties and aroma compounds of sweet Fiano wine. Food Chem. 103: 1228-1236 (2007) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.10.027
  17. Dugelay I, Gunata Z, Sapis JC, Baumes RL, Bayonnove CL. Role of cinnamoyl esterase activities from enzyme preparations on formation of volatile phenols during winemaking. J. Agr. Food Chem. 41: 2093-2096 (1993)
  18. Palomo ES, Gonzalez-Vinas MA, Diaz-Maroto MC, Soriano-Perez A, Perez-Coello MS. Aroma potential of Albillo wines and effect of skin-contact treatment. Food Chem. 103: 631-640 (2007) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.08.033
  19. Tan CT. Beverage Emulsions. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, NY, USA. pp. 491-524 (1997)
  20. Palomo ES, Perez-Coello MS, Diaz-Maroto MC, Gonzalez-Vinas MA, Cabezudo MD. Contribution of free and glycosidically-bound volatile compounds to the aroma of muscat 'a petit grains' wines and effect of skin contact. Food Chem. 95: 279-289 (2006) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.01.012
  21. Palomo ES, Hidalgo MCDM, Gonzalez-Vinas MA, Perez-Coello MS. Aroma enhancement in wines from different grape varieties using exogenous glycosidases. Food Chem. 92: 627-635 (2005) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.08.025
  22. Lambrechts MG, Pretorius IS. Yeast and its importance to wine aroma. S. Afr. J. Enol. Vitic. 21: 97-129 (2000)
  23. Hawthorne SB, Miller DJ, Pawliszyn J, Arthur CL. Solventless determination of caffeine in beverages using solid-phase microextraction with fused-silica fibers. J. Chromatogr. A 603: 185-191 (1992) https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(92)85360-6
  24. Guth H. Quantitation and sensory studies of character impact odorants of different white wine varieties. J. Agr. Food Chem. 45: 3027-3032 (1997) https://doi.org/10.1021/jf970280a
  25. Jordan MJ, Tillman TN, Mucci B, Laencina J. Using HS-SPME to determine the effects of reducing insoluble solids on aromatic composition of orange juice. LWT- Food Sci. Technol. 34: 244-250 (2001) https://doi.org/10.1006/fstl.2001.0763
  26. Selli S, Kurkcuoglu M, Kafkas E, Cabaroglu T, Demirci B, Baser KHC, Canbas A. Volatile flavour compositions of mandarin wine obtained from clementine (Citrus reticula Blanco) extracted by headspace-solid phase microextraction. Flavour Frag. J. 19: 413-416 (2004) https://doi.org/10.1002/ffj.1323
  27. Cabaroglu T, Canbas A, Baumes R, Bayonnove C, Lepoutre JP, Gunata Z. Aroma composition of a white wine of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Emir as affected by skin contact. J. Food Sci. 62: 680-683 (1997) https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1997.tb15434.x
  28. Buchholz KD, Pawliszyn J. Optimization of solid-phase microextraction conditions for determination of phenols. J. Anal. Chem. 66: 160-167 (1994) https://doi.org/10.1021/ac00073a027
  29. Rega B, Fournier N, Guichard E. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) of orange juice flavour: Odor representativeness by direct gas chromatography olfactometry (D-GC-O). J. Agr. Food Chem. 51: 7092-7099 (2003) https://doi.org/10.1021/jf034384z