DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

A Survey of Haptic Control Technology

햅틱 제어 기술 동향

  • 류제하 (광주과학기술원 기전공학과) ;
  • 김재하 (광주과학기술원 기전공학과) ;
  • 서창훈 (광주과학기술원 기전공학과) ;
  • 임요안 (광주과학기술원 기전공학과) ;
  • 김종필 (한국과학기술연구원 영상미디어연구센터)
  • Published : 2009.04.01

Abstract

Haptics technology allows one to interact with virtual environments, augmented environments, and real environments providing tactual sensory information. Science and technology of haptics can in general be classified into three groups: machine haptics, computer haptics, and human haptics. This paper surveys the state-of-the-art of haptic control technology for virtual environments and teleoperation (real environments) and then proposes possible future research directions in the following areas: haptic stability control, bilateral teleoperation control, and stability enhancement control.

Keywords

Haptics;Haptic Interaction Control;Stability;Transparency;Passivity;Teleoperation;Virtual Environment

References

  1. Astrom, K. J., Wittenmark, B., 1995, 'Adaptive Control,' Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc. $2^{nd}$ Edition
  2. Adams, R. J., Hannaford, B., 1999, 'Stable Haptic Interaction with Virtual Environments,' IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, Vol. 15, No. 3, pp. 465-474 https://doi.org/10.1109/70.768179
  3. Colgate, J. E. and Brown, J. M., 1994, 'Factors Affecting the Z-Width of a Haptic Display,' Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp. 3205-3210 https://doi.org/10.1109/ROBOT.1994.351077
  4. Colgate, J. E. and Schenkel, G. G., 1997, 'Passivity of a Class of Sampled-Data Systems: Application to Haptic Interfaces,' Journal of Robotic System, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 37-47 https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-4563(199701)14:1<37::AID-ROB4>3.0.CO;2-V
  5. Gregory, A., Mascarenhas, A., Ehmann, S., Lin, M., and Manocha, D., 2000, 'Six Degree-of-Freedom Haptic Display of Polygonal Models,' Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Visualization, pp.139-146
  6. McNeely, W. A., Puterbaugh, K. D., and Troy, J. J., 2006, 'Voxel-Based 6-DOF Haptic Rendering Improvements,' Haptics-e, Vol. 3, No. 7
  7. Hannaford, B. and Ryu, J. –H., 2002, 'Time Domain Passivity Control of Haptic Interfaces,' IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 1-10 https://doi.org/10.1109/70.988969
  8. Ryu, J. –H., Kim, Y. S., and Hannaford B., 2004, 'Sampled- and Continuous-Time Passivity and Stability of Virtual Environments,' IEEE Transactions on Robotics, Vol. 20, Issue 4, pp. 772-776 https://doi.org/10.1109/TRO.2004.829453
  9. Ryu, J. –H., Preusche, C., Hannaford, B., and Hirzinger, G., 2005, 'Time Domain Passivity Control with Reference Energy Following,' IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, Vol. 13, Issue 5, pp.737-742 https://doi.org/10.1109/TCST.2005.847336
  10. Kim, J. –P. and Ryu, J., 2004, 'Stable Haptic Interaction Control Using Energy Bounding Algorithm,' Proceedings of IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robotics and Systems, Vol. 2, pp. 1210-1217 https://doi.org/10.1109/IROS.2004.1389561
  11. Gillespie, R. B. and Cutkosky, M. R., 1996, 'Stable User-Specific Haptic Rendering of the Virtual Wall,' Proceedings of the ASME International Mechanical Engineering Conference and Exposition, Vol. 58, pp. 397-406
  12. Abbott, J. J. and Okamura, A. M., 2005, 'Effects of Position Quantization and Sampling Rate on Virtual-Wall Passivity,' IEEE Transactions on Robotics, Vol. 21, Issue 5, pp.952-964 https://doi.org/10.1109/TRO.2005.851377
  13. Diolaiti, N., Niemeyer, G., Barbagli, F., and Salisbury, J. K., 'A Criterion for the Passivity of Haptic Devices,' Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp. 2452-2457
  14. Salisbury, J. K., Conti, F., Barbagli, F., 2004, 'Haptic Rendering: Introductory Concepts,' IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, Vol. 24, Issue 2, pp. 24-32 https://doi.org/10.1109/MCG.2004.1274058
  15. Adachi, Y., Kumano, T., and Ogino, K., 1995, 'Intermediate Representation for Stiff virtual Objects,' Proceedings of Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium (VRAIS'95), pp. 203-210
  16. Mahvash, M. and Hayward, V., 'Passivity-Based High-Fidelity Haptic Rendering of Contact,' Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Vol. 3, pp. 3722-3728 https://doi.org/10.1109/ROBOT.2003.1242168
  17. Cho, C., Kim, M., Hwang, C. –S., Lee, J., Song, J. –B., 'Stable Haptic Display of Slowly Updated Virtual Environment with Multirate Wave Transform,' Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp.2465-2470
  18. Kim J. –P., Seo C., Ryu J., 2006, 'A Multirate Energy Bounding Algorithm for High Fidelity Stable Haptic Interaction Control,' International Joint Conference on SICE-ICASE, pp.215-220 https://doi.org/10.1109/SICE.2006.315610
  19. Kim, J., Seo, C., Ryu, J., 2008, 'Six Degree-of-Freedom Energy Bounding Algorithm for Stable and Directionally Transparent Haptic Interaction,' International Conference on Control, Automation and Systems, pp.260-265 https://doi.org/10.1109/ICCAS.2008.4694561
  20. Goertz, R. C., 1954, 'Mechanical master-slave manipulator,' Nucleonics, Vol. 12, No. 11, pp.45-46
  21. Ferrell, W. R., 1965, 'Remote Manipulation with Transmission Delay,' IEEE Transactions on Human Factors in Electronics, Vol. 6, pp. 24-32
  22. Sheridan, T. B. and Ferrell, W. R., 1963, 'Remote Manipulative Control with Transmission Delay,' IEEE Transactions on Human Factors in Electronics, Vol.4, pp. 25-29. https://doi.org/10.1109/THFE.1963.231283
  23. Ferrell, W. R. and Sheridan, T. B., 1967, 'Supervisory Control of Remote Manipulation,' IEEE Spectrum, pp. 81-88
  24. Fong, C., Dotson, R., and Bejczy, A., 1986, 'Distributed Microcomputer Control System for Advanced Teleoperation,' Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Vol. 3, pp. 987-995
  25. Lee, S., Bekey, G., and Bejczy, A. K., 1985, 'Computer Control of Space-Borne Teleoperators with Sensory Feedback,' Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Vol. 2, pp. 205-214
  26. Madni, A., Chu, Y. Y., and Freedy, A., 1983, 'Intelligent Interface for Remote Supervision and Control of Underwater Manipulation,' OCEANS, Vol. 15, pp.106-110 https://doi.org/10.1109/OCEANS.1983.1152126
  27. Bejczy, A. and Szakaly, Z., 1987, 'Universal Computer Control Systems (UCCS) for Space Telerobots,' Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Vol. 4, pp. 318-324
  28. Bejczy, A. K. and Kim, W. S., 1990, 'Predictive Displays and Shared Compliance Control for Time-Delayed Telemanipulation,' Proceedings of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Vol. 1, pp. 407-412 https://doi.org/10.1109/IROS.1990.262418
  29. Hirzinger, G., Heindl, J., and Landzettel, K., 1989, 'Predictive and Knowledge-Based Telerobotic Control Concepts,' Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Vol. 3, pp. 1768-1777 https://doi.org/10.1109/ROBOT.1989.100231
  30. Stark, L., Kim, W. S., Tendick, F., Hannaford, B., Ellis, S., Denome, M., Duffy, M., Hayes, T., Jordan, T., Lawton, M., Mills, T., Peterson, R., Sanders, K., Tyler, M., and Dyke, S., 1987, 'Telerobotics: Display, Control, and Communication Problems,' IEEE Journal of Robotics and Automation, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 67-75 https://doi.org/10.1109/JRA.1987.1087069
  31. Furuta, K., Kosuge, K., Shiote, Y., and Hatano, H., 1987, 'Master-Slave Manipulator Based on Virtual Internal Model Following Control Concept,' Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Vol. 4, pp. 567-572
  32. Raju, G. J., Verghese, G. C., and Sheridan, T. B., 1989, 'Design Issues in 2-Port Network Models of Bilateral Remote Manipulation,' Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Vol. 3, pp. 1316-1321 https://doi.org/10.1109/ROBOT.1989.100162
  33. Hannaford, B. and Fiorini, P., 1988, 'A Detailed Model of Bilateral Teleoperation,' Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, Vol. 1, pp. 117-121 https://doi.org/10.1109/ICSMC.1988.754254
  34. Niemeyer, G. and Slotine, E., 1991, 'Stable Adaptive Teleoperation,' IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 152-162 https://doi.org/10.1109/48.64895
  35. Lawrence, D. A., 1992, 'Stability and Transparency in Bilateral Teleoperation,' IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, Vol. 9, No. 5, pp. 625-637
  36. H-Zaad, K. and Salcudean, S. E., 1996, 'Adaptive Transparent Impedance Reflecting Teleoperation,' Proceedings of International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp. 1369-1374 https://doi.org/10.1109/ROBOT.1996.506897
  37. Zhu, W. H. and Salcudean, S. E., 2000, 'Stability Guaranteed teleoperation : An Adaptive Motion/Force Control Approach,' IEEE Transaction on Automatic Control, Vol. 45, No. 11, pp. 1951-1969 https://doi.org/10.1109/9.887620
  38. Ryu, J. H. and Kwon, D. S., 2001, 'A Novel Adaptive Bilateral Control Scheme Using Similar Closed-Loop Dynamic Characteristics of Master/Slave Manipulators,' Journal of Robotic Systems, Vol. 18, No. 9, pp. 533-543 https://doi.org/10.1002/rob.1042
  39. Prokopiou, P. A., Tzafestas, S. G., and Harwin, W. S., 1999, 'Towards Variable Time Delays Robust Telemanipulation Through Master State Prediction,' Proceedings of the IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics, pp. 305-310 https://doi.org/10.1109/AIM.1999.803183
  40. Artigas, J., Vilanova, J., Preusche, C. and Hirzinger, G., 2006, 'Time Domain Passivity Control-based Telepresence with Time Delay,' Proceedings of IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robotics and Systems, pp. 4205-4210 https://doi.org/10.1109/IROS.2006.281914
  41. Ryu, J. –H. and Preusche, C., 2007, 'Stable Bilateral Control of Teleoperators Under Time-varying Communication Delay: Time Domain Passivity Approach,' Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp. 3508-3513 https://doi.org/10.1109/ROBOT.2007.364015
  42. Artigas, J., Preusche, C., Hirzinger, G., 2007, 'Time Domain Passivity for Delayed Haptic Telepresence with Energy Reference,' Proceedings of IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robotics and Systems, pp. 1612-1617 https://doi.org/10.1109/IROS.2007.4399570
  43. Pan, Y. J., Canudas-de-Wit, C. and Sename, O., 2006, 'A New Predictive Approach for Bilateral Teleoperation with Application to Drive-by-Wire Systems,' IEEE Transactions on Robotics, Vol. 22, No. 6, pp. 1146-1162 https://doi.org/10.1109/TRO.2006.886279
  44. Leung, G. M. H., Francis, B. A., and Apkarian, J., 1995, 'Bilateral Controller for Teleoperators with Time Delay via $\mu$-Synthesis,' IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 105-116 https://doi.org/10.1109/70.345941
  45. Sename, O., and Fattouh, A., 2005, 'Robust H$infty$ Control of a Bilateral Teleoperation System Under Communication Time-Delay,' 16th IFAC World congress https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-49556-7_6
  46. Fattouh, A. and Sename, O., 1997, 'Finite Spectrum Assignment for Teleoperation Systems with Time Delay,' Proceedings of the IFAC Robot Control, pp. 599-604
  47. Yokokohji, Y., Imaida, T., and Yoshikawa, T., 2000, 'Bilateral Teleoperation with Energy Balance Monitoring under Time-Varying Communication Delay,' Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp. 2684-2689 https://doi.org/10.1109/ROBOT.2000.846433
  48. Munir, S. and Book, W. J., 2001, 'Wave-Based Teleoperation with Prediction,' Proceedings of the American Control Conference, Vol. 6, pp. 4605-4611 https://doi.org/10.1109/ACC.2001.945706
  49. Ching, H. and Book, W. J., 2006, 'Internet-Based Bilateral Teleoperation Based on Wave Variable with Adaptive Predictor and Direct Drift Control,' Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control, Vol. 128, Issue 1, pp. 86-93 https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2168161
  50. Lee, D. and Spong, M. W., 2006, 'Passive Bilateral Teleoperation with Constant Time Delay,' IEEE Transactions on Robotics, Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 269-281 https://doi.org/10.1109/TRO.2005.862037
  51. Radi, M., Artigas, J., Preusche, C., Roth, H., 2008, 'Transparency Measurement of Telepresence Systems,' Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) 5024 LNCS, pp. 766-775 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-69057-3
  52. Yokokohji, Y., Yoshikawa, T., 1994, 'Bilateral Control of Master-Slave Manipulators for Ideal Kinesthetic Coupling-Formulation and Experiment,' IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, vol.10, No. 5, pp. 605-620 https://doi.org/10.1109/70.326566
  53. Aziminejad, A., Tavakoli, M., Patel, R. V., Moallem, M., 2008, 'Transparent Time-Delayed Bilateral Tele-operation Using Wave Variables,' IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, 16 (3), pp. 548-555 https://doi.org/10.1109/TCST.2007.908222
  54. Mehling, J. S., Colgate, J. E., Peshkin, M. A., 2005, 'Increasing the Impedance Range of a Haptic Display by Adding Electrical Damping,' Proceedings of the First Joint Eurohaptics Conference and Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems, pp. 257-262 https://doi.org/10.1109/WHC.2005.79
  55. Lim, Y. -A., Kim, J. -P., Yoon, J. H., Ryu, J., 2008, 'An Analog Input Shaper for Stability Enhancement of Haptic Interfaces and Its Application to Energy-Bounding Algorithm,' Proceedings of the 17th World Congress The International Federation of Automatic Control, pp. 14687-14692 https://doi.org/10.3182/20080706-5-KR-1001.1838
  56. Weir, D. W., Colgate, J. E., Peshkin, M. A., 2008, 'Measuring and Increasing Z-Width with Active Electrical Damping,' Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environments and Teleoperators Systems, pp. 169-175 https://doi.org/10.1109/HAPTICS.2008.4479938
  57. Gosline, A. H., Hayward, V., 2008, 'Eddy Current Brakes for Haptic Interfaces: Design, Identification, and Control,' IEEE/ASME Trans. on Mechatronics, Vol. 13, No. 6, pp 669-677 https://doi.org/10.1109/TMECH.2008.2004623
  58. Gosline, A. H., Hayward, V., 2007, 'Time-Domain Passivity Control of Haptic Interfaces with Tunable Damping Hardware,' Proceedings of World Haptics (The Second Joint Eurohaptics Conference And Symposium On Haptic Interfaces For Virtual Environment And Teleoperator Systems, pp. 164-169 https://doi.org/10.1109/WHC.2007.116
  59. Otaduy, M. A., Lin, M. C., 2005, 'Stable and Responsive Six-Degree-of-Freedom Haptic Manipulation Using Implicit Integration,' Proceedings of the First Joint Eurohaptics Conference and Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems, pp. 247-256 https://doi.org/10.1109/WHC.2005.120
  60. Kim, J. –P., 2007, 'Energy Bounding Control and LOMI-Based Rendering for Haptic Interaction with Virtual Environments,' Ph. D. dissertaion, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju, Korea
  61. Lee, K. and Lee, D. Y., 'Multirate Control of Haptic Interface for Stability and High Fidelity,' IEEE International Conference on System, Man and Cybernetics, Vol. 3, pp. 2542-2547 https://doi.org/10.1109/ICSMC.2004.1400712
  62. Preusche, C., Hirzinger, G., Ryu, J. –H., Hannaford, B., 2003, 'Time Domain Passivity Control for 6 Degrees of Freedom Haptic Displays,' IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, pp. 2944-9249 https://doi.org/10.1109/IROS.2003.1249318
  63. Sato, T. and Hirai, S., 1987, 'Language-Aided Robotic Teleoperation System (Larts) for Advanced Teleoperation,' IEEE Journal of Robotics and Automation, Vol. 3, No. 5, pp. 476-481 https://doi.org/10.1109/JRA.1987.1087123
  64. Buzan, F. T. and Sheridan, T. B., 1989, 'A Model-Based Predictive Operator Aid for Telemanipulators with Time Delay,' Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, Vol. 1, pp. 138-143
  65. Miyazaki, F., Matsubayashi, S., Yoshimi, T., and Arimoto, S., 1986, 'A New Control Methodology Toward Advanced Teleoperation of Master-Slave Robot Systems,' Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Vol. 3, pp. 997-1002
  66. Hokayem, P. F. and Spong, M. W., 2006, 'Bilateral Teleoperation: An Historical Survey,' Automatica, Vol. 42, Issue 12, pp. 2035-2057 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.automatica.2006.06.027
  67. Anderson, R. J. and Spong, M. W., 1989, 'Bilateral Control of Teleoperators with Time Delay,' IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, Vol. 34, No. 5, pp. 494-501 https://doi.org/10.1109/9.24201
  68. Lee, H. K. and Chung, M. J., 1998, 'Adaptive Controller of a Master-Slave System for Transparent Teleoperation,' Journal of Robotic Systems, Vol. 15, No. 8, pp. 465-475 https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-4563(199808)15:8<465::AID-ROB3>3.0.CO;2-J
  69. Bemporad, A., 1998, 'Predictive Control of Teleoperated Constrained Systems with Unbounded Communication Delays,' Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, Vol. 2, pp. 2133-2138 https://doi.org/10.1109/CDC.1998.758651
  70. Sheng, J. and Spong, M. W., 2004, 'Model Predictive Control for Bilateral Teleoperation Systems with Time Delays,' Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, Vol. 4, pp. 1877-1880
  71. Cho, H. C., Park, J. H., Kim, K., and Park, J.-O., 2001, 'Sliding Mode-Based Impedance Controller for Bilateral Teleoperation Under Varying Time-Delay,' Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Vol. 1, pp. 1025-1030 https://doi.org/10.1109/ROBOT.2001.932684
  72. Kosuge, K., Murayama, H., and Takeo, K., 1996,'Bilateral Feedback Control of Telemanipulators via Computer Network,' Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Vol. 3, pp. 1380-1385 https://doi.org/10.1109/IROS.1996.568996
  73. Slawinski, E., Mut, V. , 2008, 'Transparency in Time for Teleoperation Systems ,' Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp. 200-205 https://doi.org/10.1109/ROBOT.2008.4543209
  74. Bogado, J. M., Ferre, M., Aracil, R., Azorin, J. M., Fernández, E. M., Baca, J., 2008, 'Transparency Analysis of Bilateral Controllers Based on the Methodology of State Convergence,' Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) 5024 LNCS, pp. 122-128 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-69057-3
  75. Srikanth, M. B., Vasudevan, H., Muniyandi, M., 2008, 'DC Motor Damping: A Strategy to Increase Passive Stiffness of Haptic Devices,' M. Ferre (Ed.), Haptics: Perception, Devices and Scenarios, Vol. 5024 of LNCS, Springer, pp. 53-62 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-69057-3
  76. Seo, C., Kim, J., Kim, J.-P., Yoon, J. H., Ryu, J., 2008, 'Stable Bilateral Teleoperation using the Energy-Bounding Algorithm: Basic Idea and Feasibility Tests,' AIM2008, pp. 335-390 https://doi.org/10.1109/AIM.2008.4601683

Cited by

  1. Haptic Joystick Implementation using Vibration Pattern Algorithm vol.19, pp.7, 2013, https://doi.org/10.5302/J.ICROS.2013.13.1877
  2. Basic Experiment on Rehabilitation of Upper-Limb Motor Function Using Haptic-Device System vol.35, pp.5, 2011, https://doi.org/10.3795/KSME-A.2011.35.5.459