Fermentation Characteristics of Grape Yakju made with Three Kinds of Grape

포도 종류를 달리한 포도 약주의 발효 특성

  • Lee, Ji-Yeon (Dept. of Food Science and Technology, Yeungnam University) ;
  • Kwak, Eun-Jung (Dept. of Food Science and Technology, Yeungnam University)
  • Published : 2009.02.28

Abstract

Three kinds of grape yakju (Kyoho, Campbell and Moru) and grape-free control were fermented with rice using koji of Aspergillus kawachii as a fermenting agent, and their fermentation characteristics were investigated. For the three yakju, reducing sugar content decreased slowly over 2 days fermentation after an initial rapid decrease. In case of Brix, the reducing sugar content increased gradually after increasing rapidly during the first 2 days of fermentation. The Kyoho and Moru groups displayed a gradual increase in reducing sugar content after an initial 2-day decrease, and the sugar content of the Campbell group increased gradually during fermentation. Uniformly, pH increased gradually after an initial 2-day decrease, however total acid increased continuously throughout fermentation. Alcohol content of yakju showed almost no change after increasing until day 6 (Kyoho) of day 4 (others), with the control displaying the highest content. Control $\alpha$-amylase activity decreased gradually after an initial 2-day increase, while that of the three yakju decreased throughout fermentation. Activities of $\beta$-amylase activities paralleled the results of reducing sugar. Concerning total anthocyanin, the Moru and Campbell groups displayed a rapid increase until day 2, a decrease until day 12, and a gradual increase thereafter. While the Kyoho and control groups displayed virtually no change after an initial 2-day increase until day 12, after which a gradual increase also occurred. In concerning sensory evaluation, Moru yakju scored highest for violetness, flavor of grape, and sweet taste, and also displayed a low alcohol content. These attributed Moru yakju the preferred choice.

References

  1. 국세청 (2000) 국세청 기술연구소 주류 분석 규정. pp 39-40.
  2. 국세청 (2007) 탁․약주 제조 교본. 국세청 기술연구소. pp 68-73.
  3. 이삼빈, 고경희, 양지영, 오성훈 (2002) 발효식품학. 효일, 서울. p 211.
  4. 채수규 (1998) 식품분석학. 지구문화사, 서울. p 125.
  5. AOAC (1990) Official Methods of Analysis 13th ed. Association of official analytical chemists, Washinton DC, USA. p 746.
  6. Bae IY, Yoon EJ, Woo JM, Kim JS, Lee HG, Yang CB (2002) The development of Korean traditional wine using the fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten-Ⅰ. Characteristics of mash and sojues. J Korean Soc Agric Chem Biotechnol 45: 11-17.
  7. Bae SD, Bae SM, Kim JS (2004) Fermentation characteristics of rice-grape wine fermented with rice and grape. Korean J Food Sci Technol 36: 616-623.
  8. Bae SM, Lee YH, Lee MK, Kang SA, Cheong C (2008) Effects of traditional Nuruk ratio and yeast on the fermentation and quality of yakju. J East Asian Soc Dietary Life 18: 41-48.
  9. Bautista-Ortin AB, Fernandez-Fernandez JI, Lopez-Roca JM, Gomez- Plaza E (2007) The effects of enological practices in anthocyanin, phenolic compounds and wine colour their dependence on grape characteristics. J Food Anal 20: 546-552. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2007.04.008
  10. Chan EWC, Lim YY, Omar M (2007) Antioxidant and antibacteral activity of leaves of Etlingera species (Zingiberaceae) in Penisular Malaysia. Food Chemistry 104: 1586-1593. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.03.023
  11. Choi SY, Cho HS, Kim HJ, Ryu CH, Lee JO, Sung NJ (2006) Physicochemical analysis and antioxidative effects of wild grape (Vitis coignetiea) juice and its wine. Korean J Food & Nutr 19: 311-317.
  12. Jin TY, Kim ES, Eun JB, Wang SJ, Wang MH (2007) Changes in physicochemical and sensory characteristics of rice wine, Yakju prepared with different amount of red yeast rice. Korean J Food Sci Technol 39: 309-314.
  13. Jin TY, Wang MH, Yin Y, Eun JB (2008) Effect of Citrus junos peel on the quality and antioxidant activity of traditional rice wine, Jinyangju. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 37: 76-82. https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2008.37.1.76
  14. Jin TY, Lee WG, Lee IS, Wang MH (2008) Changes of physicochemical, sensory and antioxidant activity characteristics in rice wine, Yakju added with different ratios of Codonopsis lanceolata. Korean J Food Sci Technol 40: 201-206.
  15. Jo YG, Kim JE (2008) Quality characteristics of wet noodles after addition of grape-peel power. J East Asian Soc Dietary Life 18: 822-828.
  16. Kim HW, Chu SM, Lee DJ (2006) Determination of resveratrol content in grape and wines. Korean J Crop Sci 51: 259-263.
  17. Kim IH, Kim SH, Kwon JH (2008) Fermentation characteristics of Yakju added with Acanthopanacis cortex extract. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 37: 521-527. https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2008.37.4.521
  18. Kim JH, Jeong SC, Kim NM, Lee JS (2003) Effect of Indian millet Koji and Legumes on the quality and angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of Korean traditional rice wine. Korean J Food Sci Technol 35: 733-737.
  19. Kim JH, Lee JH, Kim HJ, Choi SY, Lee JS (2003) Effects of barley Koji and legumes on the quality and fibrinolytic activity of Korean traditional rice wine. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 32: 1066-1070. https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.7.1066
  20. Kim JS, Kwak EJ, Lee YS (2006) Effect of on the quality characteristics of Korean traditional wines with the addition of rosemary(Rosemarinus officinalis L.). Korean J Food Cookery Sci 22: 914-922.
  21. Kim JY, Jang JS, Lee JW, Lee KT (2008) Flavor pattern analysis of imported wines using electronic nose system. J East Asian Soc Dietary Life 18: 14-21.
  22. Kim SY, Kim SK (1997) Winemaking from new wild grape. Korean J Food & Nutr 10: 254-262.
  23. Lee DH, Park WJ, Lee BC, Lee JC, Lee DH, Lee JS (2005) Manufacture and physiological functionality of Korean traditional wine by using Gugija (Lycii fructus). Korean J Food Sci Technol 37: 789-794.
  24. Lee EN, Lee DH, Kim SB, Lee SW, Kim NM, Lee JS (2007) Effects of medicinal plants on the quality and physiological funtionalities of trditional ginseng wine. J Ginseng Res 31: 102-108. https://doi.org/10.5142/JGR.2007.31.2.102
  25. Lee JE, Shin YS, Sim JK, Kim SS, Koh KH (2002) Study on the color characteristics of Korean red. Korean J Food Sci Technol 34: 164-169.
  26. Lee JI, Jung JD, Lee JW, Ha YJ, Joo ST, Park GB (2008) Quality characteristics of pressed ham containing grape seed oil. J Anim Sci & Technol 50: 721-732. https://doi.org/10.5187/JAST.2008.50.5.721
  27. Lee KS, Kim GH, Kim HH, Lee CG, Lee JY, Lee HD, Oh MJ (2008) Manufacture and physiological functionality of Korean traditional alcoholic beverage by using lily (Lilium lancifolium) scales. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 37: 598-604. https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2008.37.5.598
  28. Lee WY, Rhee CH, Woo CJ (2004) Changes of quality characteristics in brewing of Chungju (Sambaeju) supplemented with dried persimmon and Cordyceps sinenis. Korean J Food Preserv 11: 240-245.
  29. Miller GL (1959) Use of regent for determination of reducing sugar. Anal Chem 31: 426-428. https://doi.org/10.1021/ac60147a030
  30. Oh HI, Shon SH, Kim JM (2000) Changes in microflora and enzyme activities of Kochujang prepared with Aspergillus oryzae, Bacillus licheniformis and Saccharomyces rouxii during fermentation. J Korean Soc Food Technol 32: 410-428.
  31. Park SJ, Oh DH (2003) Free radical scavenging effect of seed and skin extracts of black olympia grape (Vitis labruscana L.). Korean J Food Sci Technol 35: 121-124.
  32. Ryu HY, Kum EJ, Bae KH, Kim YK, Kwun IS, Sohn HY (2007) Evaluation for the antimicrobioal, antioxidant and anti-thrombosis activity of Korean traditional liquors. Kor J Microbiol Biotechnol 35: 238-244.
  33. Seo JS, Lee JS, Byun GI, Kwak EJ (2008) Quality characteristics of Yakju fermented with wild grape and 4 kind of cereals. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 37: 1472-1478. https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2008.37.11.1472
  34. So MH, Park SY, Kim SH, Oh HJ (1994) Conditions for the production of amylase and protease in making wheat flour nuruk by Aspergillus usamii mut, shirousamii S1. Korean J Food & Nutr 7: 51-57.
  35. So MH (1995) Aptitudes for takju brewing of wheat flournuruks made with different mold species. Korean J Food & Nutr 8: 6-12.
  36. So MH (1999) Characteristics of a modified nuruk made by inoculation of trditional nuruk microorganisms. Korean J Food & Nutr 12: 219-225.
  37. So MH, Lee YS, Noh WS (1999) Changes in microorganisms and main components during takju brewing by a modified nuruk. Korean J Food & Nutr 12: 226-232.
  38. Yang YJ, Hwang YS, Park YM (2007) Modified atmosphere packaging extends freshness of grapes 'Campbell Early' and 'Kyoho'. Kor J Hort Sci Technol 25: 138-144.
  39. Yook C, Seo MH, Kim DH, Kim JS (2007) Quality improvement of Campbell Early wine by mixing with different fruits. Korean J Food Sci Technol 39: 390-399.