A Study on the Mechanical Properties of Organo-clay Filled NR/MMT Nanocomposites

Organo-Clay를 이용한 NR/MMT 나노복합체의 기계적 물성에 관한 연구

  • Oh, Woo-Taek (Department of Applied Chemistry, Cheongju University) ;
  • Lee, Eun-Kyoung (Department of Applied Chemistry, Cheongju University) ;
  • Choi, Sei-Young (Department of Applied Chemistry, Cheongju University)
  • 오우택 (청주대학교 응용화학과) ;
  • 이은경 (청주대학교 응용화학과) ;
  • 최세영 (청주대학교 응용화학과)
  • Published : 2009.12.31

Abstract

In this study, Organo-montmorillonite(MMT) was synthesized by intercalation of various amine(Octylamine, Dodecylamine, Dimethyldodecylamine, Octadecylamine) compounds into layered silicate. Natural Rubber(NR)/MMT nanocomposites were prepared by reinforcement of Organo-MMT. X-ray diffraction(XRD) and Scanning electron microscope(SEM) were employed to characterize the layer distance of Organo-MMT and the morphology of the NR/MMT nanocomposites. The structures of the synthesized Organo-MMTs were analyzed by the measurement of FT-IR. Cure characteristics, surface free energy and mechanical properties such as tensile strength, modulus and hardness of NR/MMT nanocomposites were carefully studied by contact angle meter, ODR, UTM, and hardness tester. FT-IR analysis showed a insertion of the alkyl and amine chains into the interlayers of the MMT. It was shown that the cure time of the organo-MMT was more decreased than that of $Na^+$-MMT. Surface free energy and tensile strength of the NR/DDA-MMT nanocomposite were the highest. NR/ODA-MMT nanocomposite was the highest in hardness.

References

  1. J. J. Park, 'Thermal, Dielectric Properties Characteristics of Epoxy-nanocomposites for Organoclay of Several Types', journal of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Materail Engineers, 21, 538 (2008) https://doi.org/10.4313/JKEM.2008.21.6.538
  2. R. Xu, E. Manias, A. J. Snyder, and J. Runt, 'New Biomedical Poly(urethane urea)-Layered Silicate Nanocomposites', Macromolecules., 34, 337 (2001) https://doi.org/10.1021/ma0013657
  3. S. S. Ray and M. Okamoto, 'Polymer/layered Silicate Nanocomposites: A Review from Preparation to Promcessing', Progress Polym Sci., 28, 1539 (2003) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2003.08.002
  4. R. E. Grim, 'Clay Mineralogy', McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968
  5. M. S Wang and T. J. Pinnavaia, 'Clay-Polymer Nanocomposites Formed from Acidic Derivatives of Montmorillonite and an Epoxy Resin', Chem. Mater., 6, 468 (1994) https://doi.org/10.1021/cm00040a022
  6. T. J. Pinnavaia and G. W. Beall, Polymer-clay Nanocomposite, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., New York, 2000
  7. J. M. Garcs, D. J. Moll, J. B. icerano, R. Fibiger, and D. G. Mcleod, 'Polymeric Nanocomposites for Automotive Applications', Adv. Mater., 12, 1835 (2000) https://doi.org/10.1002/1521-4095(200012)12:23<1835::AID-ADMA1835>3.0.CO;2-T
  8. H. J. KIm. Y. S. Kim, J. C. Won, M. Yi, and K. Y. Choi, 'Synthesis and Characterization of Organophilic Montmorillonites Modified with Alkyl Siloxane Amine Oligomers', Polymer., 27, 135 (2003)
  9. A. W. Adamson, 'Physical Chemistry of Surfaces', 5edited by A. W. Adamson, John Wiley, New York, 1990
  10. J. -H. Chang and Y. U. An, J. 'Nanocomposites of polyurethane with various organoclays: Thermomechanical properties, morphology, and gas permeability', Polym. Sci.; Part B: Polym. Phys., 40, 670 (2002) https://doi.org/10.1002/polb.10124
  11. R. A. Vaia, R. K. Teukolsky, and E. P. Giannelis, 'Interlayer Structure and Molecular Environment of Alkyl Ammonium layered Silicates', Chem. Mater., 6, 1017 (1994) https://doi.org/10.1021/cm00043a025
  12. T. Eo, S. Kim, K. Song, and J. Kim, 'Effects of Organosilicate Structure on Melt Intercalation of Thermoplastic Polymers', Polymer(Korea), 24, 794 (2000)
  13. G. Lagaly, 'Interaction of Alkylamines with different Types of Layered Compounds', Solid State Ionics, 22, 43 (1986) https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-2738(86)90057-3
  14. R. A. Vaia, R. Teukolsky, and E. P. Giannelis, 'Interlayer Structure and Molecular Environment of Alkylammonium Layered Silicates', Chem. Mater., 6, 1017 (1994) https://doi.org/10.1021/cm00043a025
  15. T. Eo, S. Kim, K. Song and J. Kim, 'Effects of organosilicate Structure on Melt Intercalation of Thermoplastic Polymers', Polymer(Korea)., 26, 794 (2000)
  16. Y. Ma, Y. P. Wu, L. Q. Zhang, and Q. F. Li, 'The Role of Rubber Characteristics in Preparing Rubber/Clay Nanocomposites by Melt compounding', Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 109, 1925 (2008) https://doi.org/10.1002/app.27714
  17. T. D. Fornes, P. J. Yoon, H. Kekkula, and D. R. Paul, 'Nylon 6 Nanocomposites: The Effect of Matrix Molecular Weight', Polymer, 42, 9929 (2001) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0032-3861(01)00552-3
  18. T. Lan, P. K. Kaviratna, and T. J. Pinnavaia, 'Mechanism of Clay Tactoid Exfoliation in Epoxy-Clay Nanocomposites', Chem. Mater., 7, 2144 (1995) https://doi.org/10.1021/cm00059a023
  19. S. D. Burnside and E. P. Giannelis, 'Synthesis and Properties of New Poly(dimethylsiloxane) Nanocomposites', Chem. Mater., 7, 1597 (1995) https://doi.org/10.1021/cm00057a001
  20. G. X. Chen and J. S. Yoon, 'Nanocomposites of Poly[(butylene succinate)-co-(butylene adipate)] (PBSA) and Twice-functionalized Organoclay', Polym. Int., 54, 939 (2005) https://doi.org/10.1002/pi.1793
  21. Pavia DL, Lampman GM, and Kriz GS, 'Introduction to Spectroscopy: A Guide for Students of Organic Chemistry', 200, W.B. Sunders Company, Philadelphia, 1979
  22. M. Ganter, W. Gronski, P. Reichert, and R. Mulhaupt, 'Rubber Nanocomposites: Morphology and Mechanical Properies of BR and SBR Vulcanizates Reinforced by Organophillic Layered Silicates', Rubber Chem. Technol., 74, 221 (2001) https://doi.org/10.5254/1.3544946
  23. W. Kim, B. S. Kang, S. G. Cho, C. S. Ha, and J. W. Bae, 'Styrene Butadiene Rubber-Clay Nanocomposites using a Latex Method: Morphology and Mechanical Properties', Composite Interfaces., 15, 4009 (2007)
  24. J. N. Israelachvili, 'Intermolecular and Surface Forces', Academic Press, edited by J. N. Israelachvili, San Diego, 1992
  25. F. M. Fowkes, D. C. McCarthy, and M. A. Mostafa, 'Contact Angles and the Equilibrium spreading Pressures of Liquids on Hydrophobic Solids', J. Colloid and Interface Sci., 78, 200 (1980) https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9797(80)90508-1
  26. D. K. Owens and R. C. Wendt, 'Estimation of the surface free energy of polymers', J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 13, 1741 (1969) https://doi.org/10.1002/app.1969.070130815
  27. S. Wu, 'Polymer Interface and Adhesion', edited by S. Wu, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1982
  28. S. J. Park, M. K. Seo and H. B. Shim, 'Effect of Fiber Shapes on Physical Characteristics of Non-circular Carbon Fibers-reinforced Composites', Materials Sci. and Eng. A, 352, 34 (2003) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-5093(02)00463-X
  29. E. K. Lee, K. C. Choi, and S. Y. Choi, 'Preparation and Characterization of Emulsified Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene Rubber(CSM)', Elastomer., 40, 12 (2005)
  30. K. C. Choi, E. K. Lee, and S. Y. Choi, 'Electrical Properties and Characterization of 3-Methylthiophene Impregnated Polyurethane films', Elastomer., 39, 234 (2004)
  31. K. K. Chawla, 'Composite Materials Science and Engineering', Springer-Verlag, New York, 1987
  32. W. A. Curtin, 'Theory of Mechanical Properties of Ceramic- Matrix Composites', J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 74, 2837 (1991) https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1151-2916.1991.tb06852.x