Convenient Methods for the Extraction and Discrimination of Water-Soluble Plant Pigments

수용성 식물 색소 추출 및 판별에 관한 간편한 방법

  • 정상호 (목원대학교 바이오건강학부) ;
  • 변영호 (연세대학교 생명공학과)
  • Published : 2009.03.28


The use of colorants as additives for foods and drinks is a significant factor to food consumers in determining the acceptability of processed foods. In recent years, the number of previously used artificial colorants/dyes suitable for food use has been drastically reduced as a result of toxicological studies. Therefore, the use of natural pigments such as anthocyanins and betacyanins that were known to have anticancer and antioxidant activities is increasingly required. In this study, the water-soluble plant pigments, anthocyanins and betacyanins, were easily extracted with a very simple method using a few organic solvents such as ethyl acetate, ethyl ether, and chloroform. After the extraction of them, these two major plant pigments could be also simply and rapidly separated and discriminated by a solely one-stepped agarose gel electrophoresis in a citrate buffer (pH 3.0).


  1. J. H. von Elbe, S. Y. Siok Hui, I. L. Young Ming, and W.H. Gabelman, "Quantitative analysis of betacyanins in red table beets (Betavulgaris)," J Food Sci, Vol.37, pp.932-934, 1972.
  2. H. A. Stafford, "Anthocyanins and betalains: evolution of the mutually exclusive pathways," Plant Sci, Vol.101, pp.91-98, 1994.
  3. F. C. Stintzing and R. Carle, 'unctional properties of anthocyanins and betalanins in plants, food, and in human nutrition," Trends Food Sci Technol, Vol.15, pp.19-38, 2004.
  4. N. Nelson and W. Harvey, "acuolar and plasma membrane proton adenosinetriphosphatases," Physiol Rev, Vol.79, pp.361-385, 1999.
  5. Y. Tanaka, N. Sasaki, and A. Ohmiya, "Biosynthesis of plant pigments: anthocyanins, betalains and carotenoids," The Plant J, Vol.54, pp.733-749, 2008.
  6. D. Strack, T. Vogt, and W. Schliemann, "Recent advances in betalain research," Phytochemistry, Vol.62, pp.247-269, 2003.
  7. W. Steglich and D. Strack, "Betalains," In: The alkaloids - chemistry and pharmacology. Vol.39, (Brossi A.A. ed.), San Diego, Academic Press, pp.1-62, 1990.
  8. T. Fossen and O. M. Andersen, "Cyanidin 3-(2",3"-digalloylglucoside) from red leaves of Acer platanoides," Phytochemistry, Vol.52, pp.1697-1700, 1999.
  9. N. Chirol and M. Jay, "Acylated anthocyanins from flowers of Begonia," Phytochemistry, Vol.40, pp.275-277, 1995.
  10. N. Saito, F. Tatsuzawa, K. Kasahara, M. Yokoi, S. Iida, A. Shigihara, and T. Honda, "Acylated peonidin glycosides in the slate flowers of Pharbitis nil," Phytochemistry, Vol.41, pp.1607-1611, 1996.
  11. T. Goto, T. Kondo, H. Tamura, and K Kawahori, "Structure of platiconin, a diacylated anthocyanin isolated from the Chinese bell-flower Platycodon grandiflorum," Tetrahedron Letters, Vol.24, pp.2181-2184, 1983.
  12. A. O. Klein and C. W. Hagen, Jr, "Anthocyanin production in detached petals of Impatiens balsamina L," Plant Physiol, Vol.36, pp.1-9, 1961.
  13. W. Schliemann, Y. Cai, T. Degenkolb, J. Schmidt, and H. Corke, "Betalains of Celosia argentea," Phytochemistry, Vol.58, pp.159-165, 2001.
  14. F. Gandía-Herrero, F. García-Carmona, and J. Escribano, 'luorescent pigments: new perspectives in betalain research and applications," Food Research International, Vol.38, pp.879-884, 2005.
  15. W. Schliemann, R. W. Joy IV, A. Komamine, J. W. Metzger, M. Nimtz, V. Wray, and D. Strack, "Betacyanins from plants and cell cultures of Phytolacca americana," Phytochemistry, Vol.42, pp.1039-1046, 1996.
  16. R. L. and J. L. Smith, "Anthocyanins and betalains," In: Natural Food Colorants (2nd ed.) (Hendry G.A.F. and J.D. Houghton, eds.), Chapman & Hall, London, pp.245-309, 1996.
  17. H. Wyler and A. S. Dreiding, "Über Betacyane, die Stickstoffhaltigen Farbstoffe der Centrospermen - Vorlaufige Mitteilung," Experientia, Vol.17, pp.23-25, 1961.
  18. T. Goto, T. Hoshino, and M. Ohba, "Stabilization effect of neutral salts on anthocyanins: flavylium salts, anhydrobases and genuine anthocyanins," Agr Biol Chem, Vol.40, pp.1593-1596, 1976.
  19. L. Cabrita, T. Fossen, and O. M. Andersen, "Colour and stability of the six common anthocyanidin 3-glucosides in aqueous solutions," Food Chemistry, Vol.68, pp.101-107, 2000.
  20. Y. P. Jang, J. Zhou, K. Nakanishi, and J. R. Sparrow, "Anthocyanins protect against A2E photooxidation and membrane permeabilization in retinal pigment epithelial cells," Photochem Photobiol, Vol.81, pp.529-536, 2005.
  21. R. Y. K. Yang, O. Bayraktar, and H. T. Pu, "Plant-cell bioreactors with simultaneous electropermeabilization and electrophoresis," J Biotechnol, Vol.100, pp.13-22, 2003.
  22. J.-P. Biolley, M. Jay, and G. Forkmann, "Pigmentation patterns of modern rose mutants throw light on the flavonoid pathway in Rosa hybrida," Phytochemistry, Vol.36, pp.1189-1196, 1994.
  23. O. M. Andersen, R.I. Viksund, and A. T. Pedersen, "Malvidin 3-(6-acetylglucoside)-5- glucoside and other anthocyanins from flowers of Geranium sylvaticum," Phytochemistry, Vol.38, pp.1513-1517, 1995.
  24. D. Banerji and V. Sharma, "Parallelism in hill activity and anthocyanidin content in Euphorbia pulcherrima," Phytochemistry, Vol.18, pp.1767-1768, 1979.
  25. R. Brouillard, "The in vivo expression of anthocyanin colouring plants," Phytochemistry, Vol.22, pp.1311-1323, 1983.
  26. A. Rudat and H. Goring, "Induction of betacyanin formation in cell cultures of Chenopodium album under UV-light irradiation," J Exp Bot, Vol.46, pp.129-134, 1995.