The Risk Assessment of Butachlor for the Freshwater Aquatic Organisms

Butachlor의 수서생물에 대한 위해성 평가

  • Park, Yeon-Ki (Pesticide Safety Division, National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology) ;
  • Bae, Chul-Han (Agricultural Research Center, Hankooksamgong Co., Ltd.) ;
  • Kim, Byung-Seok (Pesticide Safety Division, National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology) ;
  • Lee, Jea-Bong (Pesticide Safety Division, National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology) ;
  • You, Are-Sun (Pesticide Safety Division, National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology) ;
  • Hong, Soon-Sung (Pesticide Safety Division, National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology) ;
  • Park, Kyung-Hoon (Pesticide Safety Division, National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology) ;
  • Shin, Jin-Sup (Pesticide Safety Division, National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology) ;
  • Hong, Moo-Ki (Pesticide Safety Division, National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology) ;
  • Lee, Kyu-Seung (Chungnam National University) ;
  • Lee, Jung-Ho (Daegu University)
  • 박연기 (국립농업과학원 농산물안전성부) ;
  • 배철한 (한국삼공(주) 농업연구소) ;
  • 김병석 (국립농업과학원 농산물안전성부) ;
  • 이제봉 (국립농업과학원 농산물안전성부) ;
  • 유아선 (국립농업과학원 농산물안전성부) ;
  • 홍순성 (국립농업과학원 농산물안전성부) ;
  • 박경훈 (국립농업과학원 농산물안전성부) ;
  • 신진섭 (국립농업과학원 농산물안전성부) ;
  • 홍무기 (국립농업과학원 농산물안전성부) ;
  • 이규승 (충남대학교) ;
  • 이정호 (대구대학교)
  • Published : 2009.03.31

Abstract

To assess the effect of butachlor on freshwater aquatic organisms, acute toxicity studies for algae, invertebrate and fishes were conducted. The algae grow inhibition studies were carried out to determine the growth inhibition effects of butachlor (Tech. 93.4%) in Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (formerly knows as Selenastrum capriconutum), Desmodesmus subspicatus (formerly known as Scendusmus subspicatus), and Chlorella vulgaris during the exposure period of 72 hours. The toxicological responses of P. subcapitata, D. subspicatus, and C. vulgaris to butachlor, expressed in individual $ErC_{50}$ values were 0.002, 0.019, and $10.4mgL^{-1}$, respectively and NOEC values were 0.0008, 0.0016, and $5.34mg\;L^{-1}$, respectively. P. subcapitata was more sensitive than any other algae species. Butachlor has very high toxicity to the algae, such as P. subcapitata and D. subspicatu. In the acute immobilisation test for Daphnia magna, the 24 and $48h-EC_{50}$ values were 2.55 and $1.50mg\;L^{-1}$, respectively. As the results of the acute toxicity test on Cyprinus carpio, Oryzias latipes and Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, the $96h-LC_{50}s$ were 0.62, 0.41 and $0.24mg\;L^{-1}$, respectively. The following ecological risk assessment of butachlor was performed on the basis of the toxicological data of algae, invertebrate and fish and exposure concentrations in rice paddy, drain and river. When a butachlor formulation is applied in rice paddy field according to label recommendation, the measured concentration of butachlor in paddy water was $0.41mg\;L^{-1}$ and the predicted environmental concentration (PEC) of butachlor in drain water was $0.03 mg\;L^{-1}$. Residues of butachlor detected in major rivers between 1997 and 1998 were ranged from $0.0004mg\;L^{-1}$ to $0.0029mg\;L^{-1}$. Toxicity exposure ratios (TERs) of algae in rice paddy, drain and river were 0.004, 0.05 and 0.36, respectively and indicated that butachlor has a risk to algae in rice paddy, drain and river. On the other hand, TERs of invertebrate in rice paddy, drain and river were 3.6, 50 and 357, respectively, well above 2, indicating no risk to invertebrate. TERs of fish in rice paddy, drain and river were 0.58, 8 and 57, respectively. The TERs for fish indicated that butachlor poses a risk to fish in rice paddy but has no risk to fish in agricultural drain and river. In conclusion, butachlor has a minimal risk to algae in agricultural drain and river exposed from rice drainage but has no risk to invertebrate and fish.

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