Determination of Fatty Acid Composition and Total Trans Fatty Acids in Meat Products

  • Yilmaz, Ismail (Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Namik Kemal University) ;
  • Gecgel, Umit (Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Namik Kemal University)
  • Published : 2009.04.30


In this research, fatty acid composition and trans fatty acids of 22 selected meat products produced by Turkish companies were analyzed by capillary gas liquid chromatography (GLC). Total fat contents of the meat products ranged from 11.60-42.50%. Salami had the lowest fat content 11.60% and sucuk (soudjuk) the highest 42.50%. Major fatty acids were C$_{16:0}$, C$_{18:0}$, trans C$_{18:1}$, cis C$_{18:1}$, and C$_{18:2}$ in the samples. Total unsaturated fatty acid contents have changed from 38.73 to 70.71% of total fatty acids, and sausage had the highest percentage among the samples. The majority of samples contain trans fatty acids and the level ranged from 2.28 to 7.95% of the total fatty acids. The highest amount of total trans fatty acids was determined in kavurma (Cavurmas) (7.95%), and total trans fatty acids of meat products such as pastrami contained more than 5% of the total fatty acids.


  1. Biesalski HK. Meat as a component of a healthy diet are there any risks or benefits if meat is avoided in the diet? Meat Sci. 70: 509-524 (2005)
  2. Williamson CS, Foster RK, Stanner SA, Buttriss JL. Red meat in the diet. Nutr. Bull. 30: 323-355 (2005)
  3. Howe P, Meyer B, Record S, Baghurst K. Dietary intakes of long chain $\omega$-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: Contribution of meat sources. Nutrition 22: 47-53 (2006)
  4. Baylin A, Siles X, Donovan-Palmer A, Fernandez X, Campos H. Fatty acid composition of Costa Rican foods including trans fatty acid content. J. Food Compos. Anal. 20: 182-192 (2007)
  5. Sommerfeld M. Trans-unsaturated fatty acids in natural products and processed foods. Prog. Lipid Res. 22: 221-233 (1983)
  6. Schakel SF, Harnack L, Wold C, Van Heel N, Himes JH. Incorporation of trans-fatty acids into a comprehensive nutrient database. J. Food Compos. Anal. 12: 323-331 (1999)
  7. Sadler MJ. Trans fatty acids. pp. 230-237. In: Encyclopedia of Food Science, Food Technology, and Nutrition. Macrae R, Robinson RK, Sadler MJ (eds). Academic Press Inc., London, UK (1998)
  8. Lichtenstein AH, Appel LJ, Brands M, Carnethon M, Daniels S, Franch H, Franklin B, Kris-Etherton P, Harris W, Howard B, Karanja N, Lefevre M, Rudel L, Sacks F, Van Horn L, Winston M, Wylie-Rosett J. Diet and lifestyle recommendations revision 2006:A scientific statement from the American Heart Association Nutrition Committee. Circulation 114: 82-96 (2006)
  9. Strovas JD. Development of a knowledge survey and food composition database regarding trans-fatty acids. MS thesis, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, USA (2007)
  10. Yilmaz I, Gecgel U. Effects of gamma irradiation on trans and fatty acid composition in ground beef. Food Control 18: 635-638 (2007)
  11. Pfalzgraf A, Timm M, Steinhart H. Amounts of trans-fatty acids in food. Z. Ernahrungswiss. 33: 24-43 (1993)
  12. Aro A, Antoine JM, Pizzoferrato L, Reykdal O, Van Poppel G. Trans fatty acids in dairy and meat products from 14 European countries: The transfair study. J. Food Compos. Anal. 11: 150-160 (1998)
  13. Fritsche J, Steinhart H. Contents of trans fatty acids (TFA) in German foods and estimation of daily intake. Fett-Lipid 99: 314-318 (1997)
  14. Litin L, Sacks F. Trans fatty acid content of common foods. New Eng. J. Med. 329: 1969-1970 (1993)
  15. Tavella M, Peterson G, Espeche M, Cavallero E, Cipolla L, Perego L, Caballero B. Trans fatty acid content of a selection of foods in Argentina. Food Chem. 69: 209-213 (2000)
  16. Mensink RP, Katan MB. Effect of dietary trans fatty acids on highdensity and low-density lipoprotien cholesterol levels in healthy subjects. New Eng. J. Med. 323: 439-445 (1990)
  17. Booyens J, Louwrens CC, Katzeff IE. The role of unnatural dietary trans and cis unsaturated fatty acids in the epidemiology of coronary artery disease. Med. Hypotheses 25: 175-182 (1988)
  18. Willet WC, Ascherio A. Trans fatty acids: Are the effects only marginal? Am. J. Public Health 84: 722-724 (1994)
  19. WHO. Diet, nutrition, and prevention of chronic diseases. Technical Report Series 916. Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations and The World Health Organization, Geneva, Swizerland (2003)
  20. AOAC. Official Methods for the Analysis AOAC. 16th ed. Method 923.03. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA, USA (1995)
  21. Soysal I. Principles of Biometric Analysis. Zir. Fak. Yay. No: 95: 1-257 Tekirdag (1992)
  22. Yilmaz I, Simsek O, Isikli M. Fatty acid composition and quality characteristics of low-fat cooked sausages made with beef and chicken meat, tomato juice, and sunflower oil. Meat Sci. 62: 253-258 (2002)
  23. Kayaardı S, Gök V. Effect of replacing beef fat with olive oil on quality characteristics of Turkish soudjouk (sucuk). Meat Sci. 66:249-257 ( 2003)
  24. Anonymous. Kavurma (TS 978), Turkish Standard. Ankara, Turkey. pp. 1-12 (2002)
  25. Aksu MI, Kaya M. The effect of $\alpha$-tocopherol and butylated hydroxyanisole on the colour properties and lipid oxidation of kavurma, a cooked meat product. Meat Sci. 71: 277-283 (2005)
  26. Karabulut I. Fatty acid composition of frequently consumed foods in Turkey with special emphasis on trans fatty acids. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 58: 619-628 (2007)
  27. Yilmaz I. Effects of rye bran addition on fatty acid composition and quality characteristics of low-fat meatballs. Meat Sci. 67: 245-249 (2004)
  28. Yilmaz I. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of low fat meatballs with added wheat bran. J. Food Eng. 69: 369-373 (2005)
  29. Yilmaz I, Daglioglu O. The effect of replacing fat with oat bran on fatty acid composition and physicochemical properties of meatballs. Meat Sci. 65: 819-823 (2003)
  30. Mensink RP, Katan MB. Trans monounsaturated fatty acids in nutrition and their impact on serum lipoprotein levels in man. Prog. Lipid Res. 32: 111-112 (1993)
  31. Hunter J, Applewhite T. Reassessment of trans-fatty acid availability in the U.S. diet. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 54: 363-369 (1991)
  32. Craig-Schmidt MC World-wide consumption of trans fatty acids. Atherosclerosis 7: 1-4 (2006)