The Association of Subjective Symptoms of Students and Indoor Air Quality in Private Academic Facilities

학원시설 실내공기질과 이용자의 자각증상에 관한 연구

  • Jung, Kyung-Sick (Institute of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Soonchunhyang University) ;
  • Kim, Nam-Soo (Institute of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Soonchunhyang University) ;
  • Lee, Jong-Dae (Department of Environmental Health Science, Soonchunhyang University) ;
  • HwangBo, Young (Institute of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Soonchunhyang University) ;
  • Son, Bu-Soon (Department of Environmental Health Science, Soonchunhyang University) ;
  • Lee, Byung-Kook (Institute of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Soonchunhyang University)
  • 정경식 (순천향대학교 환경산업의학연구소) ;
  • 김남수 (순천향대학교 환경산업의학연구소) ;
  • 이종대 (순천향대학교 환경보건학과) ;
  • 황보영 (순천향대학교 환경산업의학연구소) ;
  • 손부순 (순천향대학교 환경보건학과) ;
  • 이병국 (순천향대학교 환경산업의학연구소)
  • Received : 2009.10.18
  • Accepted : 2009.12.06
  • Published : 2009.12.31


To evaluate the current indoor air quality condition of private academic facilities in Korea and investigate its association with subjective symptoms of student residing at the same academic facilities, air quality monitoring was carried out in total of 20 academic facilities located in Seoul, Daejon and Chungnam from the beginning of January to the end of April, 2009. To assess the air quality condition of academic facilities, 6 air pollutants with temperature and humidity were measured simultaneously inside and outside of academic facilities. The rate of exceeding the Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) guideline concentrations in 6 air pollutants were 5%, 85%, 15%, 5%, 10% and 30% for CO, $CO_2$, PM10, HCHO, TVOCs and TBC, respectively. A questionnaire on 16 subjective symptoms related to indoor air quality was given to 342 students who studied at the 20 academic facilities. The most frequent symptom of students was 'I feel easily tired or sleepy', and this was followed by 'I feel muscular pain or stiffness on shoulder, back and neck'. The association of net difference (subjective symptoms at the academic facility - subjective symptoms of the usual situation) with air pollutants was analyzed using spearman rank correlation. In logistic analysis using proportional odds method, the students whose indoor air concentration of HCHO was ${\geq}60{\mu}g/m^3$ hadsignificant odds of having more subjective symptoms of 'My eyes are dry or feel irritated or itching' (OR=5.026: CI=1.587-15.911), 'I feel easily tired or sleepy' (OR=2.956: CI=1.072-8.152), 'I lose my concentration and I feel my memory is falling' (OR=7.745: CI=1.938-30.955) and 'I feel dizzy' (OR=4.424: CI=1.292-15.149) than those of <$60{\mu}g/m^3$.


  1. Kim, S. W., Nam, C. H. : A study on knowledge and attitude of the middle and high school students relating to environmental health. Korean Society of Environmental Health, 23(3), 7-26, 1997
  2. Lawson, D. R., Biermann, H. W., Tuazon, E. C., Winer, A. M., Mackay, G. I., Schiff, H. I., Kok, G. L., Dasgupta, P. K., Fung, K. : Formaldehyde measurement methods evaluation and ambient concentrations during the carbonaceous species methods comparison study. Aerosol Science and Technology, 12, 64-76, 1990
  3. Mayer, B., Hermanns, K. : Reducing indoor air formaldehyde concentrations. Journal of Air Pollution Control Association, 35(8), 816-821, 1985
  4. Ha, K. C. : A study on volatile organic compounds (VOC) in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) at indoor office environments. Korean Society of Environmental Health, 27(3), 87-98, 2001
  5. Pitten, F. A., Bremer, J., Kramer, A. : Air pollution by volatile organic compounds (VOC) and health complaints. Dtsch Med Wochenschr, 125, 545-550, 2000
  6. Kang, S. A., Choi, S. J., Kim, Y. S. : The relativity analysis between indoor air quality and building construction in Incheon Area's Schools - Focused on completion time of building and construction materials. The Society of Living Environment System Korea, 15(2), 277-286, 2008
  7. Mendell, M. J., Fisk, W. J., Petersen, M. R., Hines, C. J., Dong, M., Faulkner, D., Deddens, J. A., Ruder, A. M., Sullivan, D., Boeniger, M. F. : Indoor particles and symptoms among office workers ; results from a double-blind cross-over study. Epidemiology, 13(3), 296-304, 2002
  8. Shendell, D. G., Prill, R., Fisk, W. J., Apte, M, G., Blake, D., Faulkner, D. : Association between CO$_{2}$ concentrations and student attendance in Washington and Idaho. Indoor Air, 14, 333-341, 2004
  9. Carrer, P., Cavallo, D., Maroni, M., Fo$\'{o}$, V. : Airborne particles and human health state of the knowledge and research perspectives. European Journal of Oncology, 5, 545-551, 1999
  10. Norback, D., Bjornsson, E., Janson, C., Boman, G. : Asthmatic symptoms and volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde and carbon dioxide in dwellings. Occupational Environmental Medicine, 52, 388-395, 1995
  11. Gurumurthy, R., John, L. A., Sudipto, B., Timothy, R. C., David, J., Ann, F., Ken, S. : Indoor air quality in two urban elementary school-measurements of Airborne Fungi, Carpet Allergens, CO$_{2}$, temperature, and relative humidity. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 2, 553-566, 2005
  12. Garrett, M. H., Hooper, M. A., Hooper, B. M., Rayment, P. R., Abramson, M. J. : Increased risk of allergy in children due to formaldehyde exposure in homes. Allergy, 54, 330-337, 1999
  13. U. S. Department of Energy : Causes of Indoor air quality problems in schools. 2000
  14. Myhrvold, A. N., Olsen, E., Lauridsen, O. : Indoor environment in school-pupils health and performance in regard to CO$_{2}$ concentrations. Indoor Air, 4, 369-374, 1996
  15. Ministry for Health, Welfare and Family Affairs : Public Hygiene Act 2007.5.25
  16. Apte, M. G., Fisk, W. J., Daisey, J. M. : Associations between indoor CO$_{2}$ concentrations and sick building symdrome symptoms in U.S. office building ; an analysis of the 1994-1996 BASE study data. Indoor Air, 10(4), 246-257, 2000
  17. Kim, C. S., Lim, Y. W., Yang, J. Y., Hong, C. S., Shin, D. C. : Effects of indoor CO2 concentrations on wheezing attacks in children. Proceedings of Indoor Air, 1, 492-497, 2002
  18. Kreiss, K. : T he s ick bu ilding syndrome ; W here is the epidemiologic basis?. American Journal of Public Health, 80, 1172-1173, 1990
  19. Lagercrantz, L., Wistrand, M., Willen, U., Wargocki, P., Witterseh, T., Sundell, J. : Negative impact of air pollution on productivity ; previous Danish finging repeated in new Swedish test room. Proceedings of Healthy Buildings, 1, 653-658, 2000
  20. Manahan, E. and Stanley, E. : Environmental Chemistry. Lewis Publishers, 1994
  21. Bartlett, K. H., Kennedy, S. M., Brauer, M., Dill, B., Van, Netten, C. : Predictors of exposure to indoor CO2 and bioaerosols in elementary school classrooms. Indoor Air, 1, 252-257, 1999
  22. Lee, M. R., Chung, H. S. : Development of adolescent university entrance. Korea Journal of Psychology, 10(1), 144-154, 1997
  23. Bartlett, K. H., Kennedy, S. M., Brauer, M., Netten, C. V., Dill, B. : Evaluation and a predictive model of airbone fungal concentrations in school classrooms. British Occupational Hygiene Society, 48(6), 547-554, 2004
  24. Jeon, E. C., Jang, G. S., Kook, C. : Evaluation of indoor air quality in urban school. The Environmental Education, 12(2), 73-90, 1999
  25. Bang, S. J., Lee, C. M., Kim, Y. S., Sunwoo, Y. : Indoor and outdoor distribution of Legionella spp and microbes on cooling towers water of central air conditioning facilites. Korean Society of Environmental Health, 28(3), 39-48, 2002
  26. Ministry for Health, Welfare and Family Affairs : Evaluation on the Level of Indoor Air Pollutants at Public Facilities and Development of Surveillance System on Indoor Air Pollutants. 2008
  27. Son, J. R., Roh, Y. M., Son, B. S. : The assessment of survey on the indoor air quality at school in Korea. Korean Society of Environmental Health, 32(2), 140-148, 2006
  28. Gunnbjornsdottir, M. I., Norback, D., Plaschke, P., Norrman, E., Bjrnsson, E., Janson, C. : The ralationship between indicators of building dampness and respiratory health in young Swedish adults. Respiratory Medicine, 97, 302-307, 2003
  29. Kim, K. S. : Stress perception, coping and distress in college entrance examination among adolescents and their parents. Korea Home Management Association, 13(1), 12-25, 1995
  30. Ministry Of Environment : Standard Method for Indoor Air Measurement, 2004
  31. Kim, D. S., Kim, S. J., Park, S. Y., Jeon, M. J., Kim, G. T., Kim, C. Y., Chung, J. H., Beak, S. O., Sakong, J. : The effcet of indoor air quality on the neurobehavioral performance of elementary school children. Korea Society of Occupational & Environmental Medicine, 19(1), 73-80, 2007
  32. Lee, E. H. : The impact of resilient factors on the mental health of senior high school students. Mental Health & Social Work, 31, 5-29, 2009

Cited by

  1. Evaluation of formaldehyde as an ocular irritant: a systematic review and Meta-analysis pp.1556-9535, 2018,