Sample Size Determination of Univariate and Bivariate Ordinal Outcomes by Nonparametric Wilcoxon Tests

단변량 및 이변량 순위변수의 비모수적 윌콕슨 검정법에 의한 표본수 결정방법

  • Received : 20090800
  • Accepted : 20091000
  • Published : 2009.12.31


The power function in sample size determination has to be characterized by an appropriate statistical test for the hypothesis of interest. Nonparametric tests are suitable in the analysis of ordinal data or frequency data with ordered categories which appear frequently in the biomedical research literature. In this paper, we study sample size calculation methods for the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test for one- and two-dimensional ordinal outcomes. While the sample size formula for the univariate outcome which is based on the variances of the test statistic under both null and alternative hypothesis perform well, this formula requires additional information on probability estimates that appear in the variance of the test statistic under alternative hypothesis, and the values of these probabilities are generally unknown. We study the advantages and disadvantages of different sample size formulas with simulations. Sample sizes are calculated for the two-dimensional ordinal outcomes of efficacy and safety, for which bivariate Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test is appropriate than the multivariate parametric test.


Sample sizes;ordinal outcomes;univariate and bivariate WMW


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