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Review of Various Quantitative Methods to Measure Secondhand Smoke

간접흡연의 정량적 노출측정 방법의 고찰

  • Lim, Soo-Gil (Graduate School of Public Health and Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University) ;
  • Kim, Joung-Yoon (Graduate School of Public Health and Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University) ;
  • Lim, Wan-Ryung (Graduate School of Public Health and Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University) ;
  • Sohn, Hong-Ji (Graduate School of Public Health and Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University) ;
  • Lee, Ki-Young (Graduate School of Public Health and Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University)
  • 임수길 (서울대학교 보건대학원 환경보건학과) ;
  • 김정윤 (서울대학교 보건대학원 환경보건학과) ;
  • 임완령 (서울대학교 보건대학원 환경보건학과) ;
  • 손홍지 (서울대학교 보건대학원 환경보건학과) ;
  • 이기영 (서울대학교 보건대학원 환경보건학과)
  • Published : 2009.04.30

Abstract

Secondhand smoke (SHS) is one of major public health threats. Since secondhand smoke is complex mixture of toxic chemicals, there has been no standardized method to measure SHS quantitatively. The purpose of this manuscript was to review various quantitative methods to measure SHS. There are two different methods: air monitoring and biological monitoring. Air monitoring methods include exhaled carbon monoxide level, ambient fine particulates, nicotine and 3-ethenylpyridine. Measurement of fine particulates has been utilized due to presence of real-time monitor, while fine particulates can have multiple indoor sources other than SHS. Ambient nicotine and 3-EP are more specific to SHS, although there is no real-time monitor for these chemicals. Biological monitoring methods include nicotine in hair, cotinine in urine, NNK in urine and DNA adducts. Nicotine in hair can provide chronic internal dose, while cotinine in urine can provide acute dose. Since biological monitoring can provide total internal dose, identification of specific exposure source may be difficult. NNK in urine can indicate carcinogenicity of the SHS exposure. DNA adducts can provide overall cancer causing exposure, but not specific to SHS. While there are many quantitative methods to measure SHS, selection of appropriate method should be based on purposes of assessment. Application of accurate and appropriate exposure assessment method is important for understanding health effects and establishing appropriate control measures.

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