DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

A Study on the Degradation and the Reduction of Acute Toxicity of Simazine Using Photolysis and Photocatalysis

광반응 및 광촉매 반응을 이용한 simazine의 분해 및 독서저감에 관한 연구

  • Kim, Moon-Kyung (Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Seoul National University) ;
  • Oh, Ji-Yoon (Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Seoul National University) ;
  • Son, Hyun-Seok (Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Seoul National University) ;
  • Zoh, Kyung-Duk (Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Seoul National University)
  • 김문경 (서울대학교 보건대학원 환경보건학과) ;
  • 오지윤 (서울대학교 보건대학원 환경보건학과) ;
  • 손현석 (서울대학교 보건대학원 환경보건학과) ;
  • 조경덕 (서울대학교 보건대학원 환경보건학과)
  • Published : 2009.04.30

Abstract

The photocatalysis degradation of simazine, s-triazine type herbicide was carried out using circulating photo reactor systems. In order to search for the effective method to mineralize this compound into environmentally compatible products, this study compared the removal efficiencies of simazine by changing various parameters. First, under the photocatalytic condition, simazine was more effectively degraded than by photolysis and $TiO_2$ only condition. With photocatalysis, 5 mg/l simazine was degraded to approximately 90% within 30 min, and completely degraded after 150 min. Ionic byproducts such as ${NO_2}^-$, ${NO_3}^-$, and $Cl^-$ were detected from the photocatalysis of simazine, however, the recoveries were poor, indicating the presence of organic intermediates rather than the mineralization of simazine during photocatalysis. Two bioassays using V. fischeri and D. magna were employed to measure the toxicity reduction in the reaction solutions treated by both photocatalysis and photolysis. Simazine and its photocatalysis treated water did not exert any significant toxicity to V. fischeri, marine bacterium. However, the acute toxicity test using D. magna indicates that initial acute toxicity ($EC_{50}$ = 57.30%) was completely reduced ($EC_{50}$ = 100%) after 150 min under both photocatalysis and photoysis of simazine. This results indicates that photocatalysis and photolysis of simazine reduced the acute toxicity through mineralization.

References

  1. Ahel, M., Evans, K. M., Fileman, T. W. and Mantoura R. F. C. : Determination of atrazine and simazine in estuarine samples by high-resolution gaschromatography and nitrogen selective detection. Analytica Chimica Acta, 268, 195-204, 1992 https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-2670(92)85213-P
  2. Alva, A. K. and Singh, M. : Sorption of bromacil, diuron, norflurazon and simazine at various horizons in two soils. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 45, 365-374, 1990 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01701159
  3. Pereira, W. E. and Rostad, C. E. : Occurrence, distributions, and transport of herbicides and their degradation products in the lower Mississippi River and its tributaries. Environmental Science and Technology, 24, 1400-1406, 1990 https://doi.org/10.1021/es00079a015
  4. Behki, R. M. and Khan, S. U. : Degradation of atrazine by pseudomonas: N-dealkylation and dehalogenation of atrazine and its metabolites. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 34(4), 746-749, 1986 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00070a039
  5. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Consumer Fact sheet on : SIMAZINE, http://www.epa.gov/safewater/dwhlc-soc/simazine.html
  6. Strandberg, M. T. and Scott-Fordmand, J. J. : Field effects of simazine at lower trophic levels - a review. Science of the Total Environment, 296, 117-137, 2002 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(02)00065-7
  7. Behnajady, M. A., Modirshahlaa, N. and Shokri, M. : Photo destruction of Acid Orange 7 (AO7) in aqueous solutions by UV/H$_{2}$O$_{2}$: influence of operational parameters. Chemosphere, 55, 129-134, 2004 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2003.10.054
  8. Ekaterina, A. K., Panagiotis, G. S. and Alexandre, V. V. : Comparative study on photocatalytic oxidation of four organophosphorus stimulants of chemical warfare agents in aqueous suspension of titanium dioxide. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, 162, 503-511, 2001 https://doi.org/10.1016/S1010-6030(03)00392-7
  9. Haag, W. R., Johnson, M. G. and Scofield, R. : Direct photolysis of trichloroethylene in air: effect of cocontaminant toxicity, of products, and hydrothermal treatment of products. Environmental Science and Technology, 30, 414-421, 1996 https://doi.org/10.1021/es950047y
  10. Legrini, 0., Oliveros E. and Braun, A. M. : Photochemical processes for water treatment. Chemical Reviews, 93, 671-698, 1993 https://doi.org/10.1021/cr00018a003
  11. Shen, Y. S. and Ku, Y. : Decomposition of gasphase trichloroethene by the UV/TiO$_{2}$ process in the presence of ozone. Chemosphere, 46, 101-107, 2002 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(00)00585-3
  12. Wen, S., Zhao, J., Sheng, G., Fu J. and Peng, P. : Photocatalytic reactions of phenanthrene at TiO$_{2}$/ water interfaces. Chemosphere, 46, 871-877, 2002 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(01)00149-7
  13. Choi, J. K., Son, H. S., Kim, T. S., Stenstrom, M. K. and Zoh, K. D. : Degradation kinetics and mechanism of RDX and HMX in TiO$_{2}$ photocatalyst. Environmental Technology, 27, 219-232, 2006 https://doi.org/10.1080/09593332708618636
  14. Burrows, H. D., Canle L. M., Santaballa, J. A. and Steenken, S. : Reaction pathways and mechanisms of photodegradation of pesticides. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, 67, 71-108, 2002 https://doi.org/10.1016/S1011-1344(02)00277-4
  15. Rosenfeldta, E. J., Linden, K. G., Canonicaa, S. and Guntena, U. V. : Comparison of the efficiency of OH radical formation during ozonation and the advanced oxidation processes O$_{3}$/H$_{2}$O$_{2}$ and UV/H$_{2}$O$_{2}$. Water Research, 40, 3695-3704, 2006 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2006.09.008
  16. 양원호, 김대원, 정문호, 양진섭, 박기선 : 이산화티탄광촉매 졸(sol)의 실내환경 코팅에 의한 실내공기질 개선. 한국환경위생학회지, 30, 92-97, 2004
  17. 박영식, 나영수, 안갑환 : UV/TiO$_{2}$ 시스템을 이용한 Rhodamine B의 색도 제거. 한국환경위생학회지, 28, 59-64, 2002
  18. 박영식 : 석영관 광촉매 반응기를 이용한 Rhodamine B의 색도 제거. 한국환경보건학회지, 30, 358-365, 2005
  19. Muggli, D. S. and Falconer, J. L. : Role of lattice oxygen in photocatalytic oxidation on TiO$_{2}$. Journal of Catalysis, 191, 318-325, 2000 https://doi.org/10.1006/jcat.2000.2821
  20. Wong, C. C. and Chu, W. : The hydrogen peroxideassisted photocatalytic degradation of alachlor in TiO$_{2}$ suspensions. Environmental Science and Technology, 37, 2310-2316, 2003 https://doi.org/10.1021/es020898n
  21. Zuo, M. 0., Cheng, Z. H., Chen, H., Li, G. W. and Miao, T. : Study on photocatalytic degradation of several volatile organic compounds. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 128, 158-163, 2006 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2005.07.056
  22. Extoxnet. 2009. Extensiion Toicology Network. DPR Aquatictox database. Pesticide information profile: Simazine
  23. Choy, W. K. and Chu, W. : Destruction of o-chloroaniline in UV/TiO$_{2}$ Reaction with photosensitizing additives. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 44, 8184-8189, 2005 https://doi.org/10.1021/ie0506419
  24. Evgenidou, E. and Fytianos, K. : Photodegradation of triazine herbicides in aqueous solutions and natural waters. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50, 6423-6427, 2002 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0202887
  25. Arufe, M. I., Arellano, J., Moreno, M. J. and Sarasquete, C. : Comparative toxic effects of formated simazine on Vibrio fischeri and gilthead seabream. Chemosphere, 57, 1725-1732, 2004 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2004.09.010
  26. Munn, M. D. and Gilliom, R. J. : Pesticide toxicity index for freshwater aquatic organisms. US Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 01- 4077, Sacramento, CA, 2001
  27. Tchounwou, P. B., Wilson, B., Ishaque, A., Ransome, R., Huang, M. J., and Leszczynski, J. : Toxicity assessment of atrazine and related triazine compounds in the microtox assay, and computational modeling for their structure-activity relationship. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 1, 63-74,2000 https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms1040063
  28. Strachan, G., Preston, S., Maciel, H., Porter, A. J. R., and Paton, G. I. : Use of bacterial biosensors to interpret the toxicity and mixture toxicity of herbicides in freshwater. Water Research, 35, 3490-3495, 2001 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1354(01)00065-3