The Effect of the Swimming Exercise by Load on Concentration of BDNF in Serum and Behavioral Change of CNS Injury in the Rats

부하유무에 따른 수영운동이 중추신경계 손상 흰쥐의 혈청 BDNF 농도 및 행동변화에 미치는 영향

  • Received : 2009.08.07
  • Accepted : 2009.11.10
  • Published : 2009.12.28


The purposes of the present investigation was to evaluate the effects of loaded and unloaded swimming stimulation after central nerve system injury in the rats. SCI model rats were damaged in L1-L2 injected with 6-OHDA. The twenty one Sprague-Dawley adult male rats weights($200\pm10g$) were randomly divided into control group and 2 swimming groups and then swimming groups divided into 15 minute unloaded swimming group and 15 minute loaded swimming group by swimming intensity. Behavioral Change was evaluated by the BBB(Basso, Brestti, Brenahan) scales test and the maximal angles of the inclined board on which the rat could maintain its intial position for the progressive locomotor recovery. Using enzyme-linked immunosolbent assays(ELISA), we measured concentrations of brain-delived growth factor(BDNF) in serum after swimming. There was significant change of BBB scores in control group as compared to unloaded swimming group and loaded swimming group(p<.05), and unloaded swimming group were significantly higher than loaded swimming group(p<.05). The maximal angles of the inclined plane test were higher in the unloaded swimming group and loaded swimming group than the control group(p<.05), and loaded swimming group were significantly lower than unloaded swimming group(p<.05). There were singnificant difference of concentration of BDNF in serum change in each group(p<.05). The results suggest that swimming applied from the early phase after spinal cord injury may be beneficial in the early recovery of motor function.


Spinal Cord Injury;Swimming;Motor Function;BDNF


  1. 고기준, "부하유무에 따른 흰쥐의 수영운동이 혈액 성분과 항산화효소 및 활성산소에 미치는 영향", 한국체육교육학회지, 제7권, 3호. pp.247-251, 2002.
  2. 이재성, 이문영, 김민선, 박동식, 최석준, 박병림, "흰쥐에서 척수손상 후 기능회복에 관여하는 전기자극의 작용기전", 대한재활희학회지, 제21권, pp.281-289, 1997.
  3. 편성범, 권희규, 엄창섭, "백서에서 좌골신경손상 후 운동이 가자미근에 미치는 영향", 대한재활의학회지, 제23권, pp.1063-1075, 1999.
  4. D. M. Basso, M. S. Beattie, and J. C. Bresnahan, "A senitive and reliable locomotor rating scale for open field testing in rats," J Neurotrauma, Vol.12, pp.1-21, 1995.
  5. M. Bilbe and Y. A. Barde, "Beurotrophins: key regulators of cell fate and cell shape in the vertebrate nervous system," Genes Dev, Vol.14, pp.2919-37, 2000.
  6. L. T. Brody, Aquatic physical therapy, Therapeutic exercise : Moving Toward function. philadelphia, PA : FA Davis, 2001.
  7. B. Cheng, Y. Goodman, J. G. Begley, and M. P. Mattson, "Neurotrophin-4/5 protects hippocampal and cortical neurons against energy deprivation-and excitatory amino acid-induced injury," Brain Res, Vol.650, pp.331-335, 1994.
  8. S. C. Chen, C. H. Lai, W. P. Chan, M. H. Huang, H. W. Tsai, and J. J. Chen, "Increases in bone mineral density after functional electrical stimulation cyclingexercises in spinal cord injured patients," Disabil Rehabi, Vol.27, No.22, pp.1337-1341, 2005.
  9. B. Connor and M. Dragunow, "The role of neuronal growth factors in neurodegenerative disorder of the human brain," Brain Res Reviews, Vol.27, No.1, pp.1-39, 1998.
  10. A. J. Emerson, D. P. Kappenman, P. J. Ronan, K. J. Renner, and C. H. Summer, "Stress induces rapid changes in serotonergic activity: restraint and exertion," Behavioural Brain Research, Vol.111, pp.83-92, 2000.
  11. M. Gleeson, D. C. Nieman, and B. K. Pedersen, "Exercise, nutrition and immune function," J. Sports Sci, Vol.22, No.1, pp.115-125, 2004.
  12. K. Inoue, H. Yamazaki, Y. Manabe, C. Fukuda, and T. Fushiki, "Release of a substance that suppresses spontaneous motor activity in the brain by physical exercise," Physiology and Behavior, Vol.64, No.2, pp.185-190, 1998.
  13. F. Karege, M. Schwald, and M. Cisse, "Postnatal developmental profile of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in brains and platelets," Neurosci Lett, Vol.328, No.3, pp.261-264, 2002.
  14. Y. P. Kim, H. B. Kim, M. H. Jang, B. V. Lim, Y. J. Kim, H. Kim, S. S. Kim, E. H. Kim, and C. J. Kim, "Magnitude and time-dependence if the effect of treadmill exercise on cell proliferation if the dentate gyrus of rats," Int J Sports Med, Vol.24, pp.114-117, 2003.
  15. C. Lajoie, A. Calderone, and L. Beliveau, "Exercise training enhanced the expression of myocardial proteins related to cell protection in spontaneously hypertensive rats," Pflugers Arch, Vol.449, pp.26-32, 2004.
  16. D. S. Magnuson, R. Lovett, C. Coffee, R. Gray, Y. Han, Y. P. Zhang, and D. A. Burke, "Functional consequences of lumbar spinal cord contusion injuries in the adult rat," J Neurotrauma, Vol.22, No.5, pp.529-543, 2005.
  17. T. L. Marc and S. G. Corey, "Regeneration in the Nogo zone," Science, Vol.287, No.5454. pp.813-814, 2000.
  18. M. P. Mattson, "Neuroprotective signaling and the aging brain: take away my food and let me run," Brain Res, Vol.886, pp.47-53, 2000.
  19. T. M. Myckatyn, S. E. Mackinnon, and J. W. McDonald, "Stem cell transplantation and other novel techniques for promoting recovery from spinal cord injury," Transplant Immunology, Vol.12, pp.343-358, 2004.
  20. S. A. Neeper, F. Gomez-Pinilla, and J. Choi, "Exercise and brain neurotrophins," Nature, Vol.397, pp109, 1995.
  21. Z. Radak, M. Sasvari, C. Nyakas, T. Kaneko, S. Tahara, H. Ohno, and S. Goto, "Single bout of exercise eliminates the immobilization- induced oxidative stress in rat brain," Neurochemistry International, Vol.39, No.1, pp.33-38, 2001.
  22. S. W. Scheff, D. A. Saucier, and M. E. Cain, "A statistical method for analyzing rating scale data: the BBB locomotor score," J Neurotrauma, Vol.19, pp.1251-1260, 2002.
  23. A. Singh, S. Black, and N. Hermann, "Functional and neuroanatomic correlations in poststroke depression: The Sunnybrook Stoke Study," Stroke, Vol.31, No.3, pp.637-644, 2000.
  24. A. Shumway-Cook and M. H. Woollacott, "Motor Control: Theory and Practical Application," 2nd ed. Philadelphia, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001.
  25. M. H. Tai, H. Cheng, and J. P. Wu, "Gene transfer of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor promotes functional recovery following spinal cord contusion," Experimental Neurology, Vol.183, pp.508-515, 2003.
  26. H. Van Praag, G. Kempermann, and F. H. Gage, "Running increases cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the adult mouse dentate gyrus," Nature Neuroscience, Vol.2, No.3, pp.266-270, 1999.
  27. P. H. Veltink, M. Ladouceur, and T. SinkJaer, "Inhibition of the triceps surae stretch reflex by stimulation of the deep peroneal Nerve in persons with spastic stroke," Arch Phys Med Rdhabil, Vol.81, pp.1016-1024, 2000.
  28. N. B. Vollaard, J. P. Shearman, and C. E. Cooper, "Exercise-induced oxidative stress," Sports Medicine, Vol.35, No.12, pp.1045-1062, 2005.
  29. Y. R. Yang and P. S. Wang, "Early and late treadmill training after focal brain ischemia in rats," Neurosic Lett, 20, Vol.339, No.2, pp.91-94, 2003.
  30. J. Zhou, B. P. Rivero, and H. F. Bradford, G. M. Stern, "The BDNF content of postnatal and adult rat brain: the effects of 6-hydroxydopamine lesion in adult brain," Developmental Brain Resarch, Vol.97, No.2, pp.297-303, 1996.
  31. L. Zhou, B. J. Baumagrtner, S. J. Hill-Felberg, L. R, Shine, and H .D. McGowen, "Neurotrophin-3 expressed in situ induces axonal platicity in the adult injured spinal cord," J Neurosci, Vol.15, pp.14-24, 2003.