Modified GOMS-Model for Mobile Computing

모바일 작업을 위한 수정된 GOMS-model에 대한 연구

  • Lee, Suk-Jae (Department of Industrial Systems and Information Engineering, Korea University) ;
  • Myung, Ro-Hae (Department of Industrial Systems and Information Engineering, Korea University)
  • 이석재 (고려대학교 산업시스템정보공학과) ;
  • 명노해 (고려대학교 산업시스템정보공학과)
  • Published : 2009.06.30


GOMS model is a cognitive modeling method of human performance based on Goal, Operators, Methods, Selection rules. GOMS model was originally designed for desktop environment so that it is difficult for GOMS model to be implemented into the mobile environment. In addition, GOMS model would be inaccurate because the original GOMS model was based on serial processing, excluding one of most important human information processing characteristics, parallel processing. Therefore this study was designed to propose a modified GOMS model including mobile computing and parallel processing. In order to encompass mobile environment, an operator of 'look for' was divided into 'visual move to' and 'recognize' whereas 'point to' and 'click' were combined into 'tab.' The results showed that newly introduced operators were necessary to estimate more accurate mobile computing behaviors. In conclusion, modified-GOMS model could predict human performance more accurately than the original GOMS model in the mobile computing environment.


  1. 김상환, 김경민, 명노해; “이동전화 한글입력 시스템의 물리적 인터페이스 평가에 관한 연구”, Journal of the Korean Institute of Industrial Engineers, 28(2) : 193-200, 2002
  2. 김정환; “숙련도에 따른 핸드폰 문자 입력 방식의 눈-손 협응에 관한 연구”, 석사학위논문, 고려대학교, 2007
  3. 박지훈; “Vi editor에 대한 사용자 능률 측정을 위한 GOMS 및 Keystroke-level Model", 부산외국어대학교 학위논문집, 9(2) : 51-94, 1991
  4. 윤철호; “GOMS 분석에 의한 HTS 사용자 인터페이스 평가”, 선문공대 연구/기술논문집, 7(1) : 133-136, 2002
  5. 이창호; “GOMS를 이용한 인터넷 가상상점의 사용 용이성 평가”, 석사학위논문, 고려대학교, 1999
  6. Anderson, J. R. and Lebiere, C. Eds.; Atomic Components of Thought, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, New Jersey, London, 1998
  7. Bonnie, E. J. and Kieras, D. E.; "The GOMS Family of User Interface Analysis Techniques: Comparison and Contrast," ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 3(4) : 320-350, 1996b
  8. Bonnie, E. J. and Kieras, D. E.; "Using GOMS for User Interface Design and Evaluation: Which Technique?", ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 3(4) : 287-319, Dec, 1996a
  9. Card, S. K., Moran T. P., and Newell, A.; "Computer Text-Editing: An Information-Processing Analysis of a Routine Cognitive Skill," Cognitive Psychology, 12 : 32-74, 1980b
  10. Card, S. K., Moran, T. P., and Newell, A.; The Psychology of Human-Computer Interaction, Hillsdale, N. J., L. Erlbaum Associates, 1983
  11. Henrik, T.; "Measuring Website Usability for Visually Impaired People-A Modified GOMS Analysis," Proceedings of the 8th International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers and Accessibility, Portland, Oregon : 55-62, 2006
  12. Holleis, P., Otto, F., Hubmann, H. and Schmidt, A.; "Keystroke-Level Model for advanced Mobile Phone Interaction," Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, San Jose, California : 1505-1514, 2007
  13. John, B. E.; "Contributions to Engineering Models of Human-Computer Interaction, Doctoral Dissertation," Canegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, 1988
  14. John, B. E. and Newell, A.; "Cumulating the Science of HCI : From S-R Compatibility to Transcription Typing," ACM SIHCHI Bulletin, 20 : 109-114, 1989
  15. Kieras, D. E.; "A Guide to GOMS Model Usability Evaluation using NGOMSL," The Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd edition, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1996
  16. Kieras, D. E. and Meyer D. E.; "An Overview of the EPIC Architecture for Cognition and Performance with Application to Human-Computer Interaction," Human-Computer Interaction, 12 : 391-438, 1997
  17. Kieras, D. E., Scott, D. W., and Meyer D. E.; "Predictive Engineering Models Using the EPIC Architecture for a High-Performance Task," Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Denver, Colorado, United States: 11-18, 1995
  18. Mackenzie, I. S. and Soukoreff, R. W.; "Text Entry for Mobile Computing : Models and Methods, Theory and Practice," Human-Computer Interaction, 17 : 147-198, 2002
  19. Myung, R.; "Keystroke-Level Analysis of Korean Text Entry Methods on Mobile Phones," International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 60 : 545-563, 2004
  20. Nwewll, A.; Unified Theories of Cognition, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1990
  21. Olson, J. R. and Olson, G. M., "The Growth of Cognitive Modeling in Human-Computer Interaction since GOMS," Human-Computer Interactaction, 5 : 221-265, 1990
  22. Salvucci, D. D. and Goldberg, J. H.; "Identifying Fixations and Saccades in Eye-Tracking Protocols," In Proceedings of the EyeTracking Research and Applications Symposium, Palm Beach Gardens, Florida : 71-78, 2000
  23. Soar Technology; EGLEAN Science and Technology Report: The first six months, AUTHOR, Ann Arbor, MI, 2005
  24. Takahiro, H. and Kazuyuki, S.; "Different Memory Types for Generating Saccades at Different Stages of Learning," Neuroscience Research, 55(3) : 271-284, 2006
  25. Viviani, P., Baud-Bovy, G., and Redolfi, M.; "Perceiving and Tracking Kinaesthetic Stimuli: Further Evidence of Motor Perceptual Interactions," Journal of experimental psychology, 23(4) : 1232-1252, 1997
  26. Williams, K. E.; "Computer-aided GOMS : A Description and Evaluation of a Tool that Integrates Existing Research for Modeling Human-Computer Interaction," International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 18, 39-58, 2005