Development and Characterization of Trans Free Margarine Stock from Lipase-Catalyzed Interesterification of Avocado and Palm Oils

팜유와 아보카도유로부터 효소적 interesterification을 통한 trans free margarine stock 제조 및 이화학적 특성 연구

  • Published : 2009.06.30


Trans free margarine stock (TFMS) was produced by lipase-catalyzed synthesis of fully hydrogenated soybean oil (FHSBO), avocado oil (AO) and palm oil (PO). A blend of FHSBO, AO, and PO with a 1:5:4 (30:150:120 g, respectively) ratio was interesterified with lipozyme RM IM(from Rhizomucor miehei) in a 1 L-batch type reactor at 65 for 12 hr, and the physicochemical and melting properties of TFMS were compared with commercial margarine. The solid fat content (%) of the TFMS was analyzed at 25, 30, and $35^{\circ}C$, respectively, while its melting point was $37.8^{\circ}C$. The trans fatty acid content of the TFMS was below 0.1%. It also had acid, saponification, and iodine values of 0.4, 173.9, and 58.6, respectively. In HPLC chromatograms of the TFMS, newly synthesized peaks of triacylglycerol molecules were observed by using reverse-phase HPLC with evaporative light-scattering detection. Normal-phase HPLC with UV detection was used to quantify tocopherols in the TFMS, indicating that its ${\alpha}-$, ${\gamma}-$ and ${\delta}$-tocopherol contents were 5.7, 2.1, and 1.7 mg/100 g, respectively.


structured lipids;interesterification;avocado oil;margarine stock


  1. Katan MB. Health effects of trans fatty acids. Eur. J. Clin. Invest. 28: 257-258 (1998)
  2. Lee KT, Akoh CC. Structured lipids: Synthesis and applications. Food Rev. Int. 14: 17-34 (1998)
  3. Karabulut I, Turan S, Ergin G. Effects of chemical interesterification on solid fat content and slip melting point of fat/oil blends. Eur. Food Res. Tech. 218: 224–229 (2004)
  4. Zhang H, Pedersen LS, Kristensen D, Adler-Nissen J, Holm HC. Modification of margarine fats by enzymatic interesterification: Evaluation of a solid-fat-content-based exponential model with two groups of oil blends. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 81: 653-658 (2004)
  5. Shin HS, Chung KH, Chun JH. Effect of random interesterification on the physicochemical properties in blends of corn germ oil and fully hydrogenated soybean oil. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 23: 360-365 (1991)
  6. Alvizouri-Munoz M, Carranza-Madrigal J, Herrera-Abarca JE, Chavez-Carbajal F, Amezcua-Gastelum JL. Effects of avocado as a source of monounsaturated fatty acids on plasma lipid levels. Arch. Med. Res. 23: 163-167 (1992)
  7. Salazar MJ, Hafidi ME, Pastelin G, Ramírez-Ortega MC, Sanchez-Mendoza MA. Effect of an avocado oil-rich diet over an angiotensin II-induced blood pressure response. J. Ethnopharmacol. 98: 335-338 (2005)
  8. Shin JA, Lee KT. Production of structured lipid containing capric and conjugated linoleic acids and studies of physicochemical characteristics. Korea J. Food Sci. Technol. 36: 537-541 (2004)
  9. Lee KT, Foglia TA, Lee JH. Low-calorie fat substitutes: synthesis and analysis. Vol. 16, pp. 1-19. In: Handbook of Industrial Biocatalysis. Ching TH (ed). CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton, FL, USA (2005)
  10. AOCS. Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the AOCS. 4th ed. Cd 3a-63, Cd 1-25, Cd 3-25. American Oil Chemists' Society, Champaign, IL, USA (1990)
  11. Muller H, Jordal O, Kierulf P, Kirkhus B, Pedersen JI. Replacement of partially hydrogenated soybean oil by palm oil in margarine without unfavorable effects on serum lipoproteins. Lipids 33: 879-887 (1998)
  12. Posada LR, Shi J, Kakuda Y, Xue SJ. Extraction of tocotrienols from palm fatty acid distillates using molecular distillation. Sep. Purif. Technol. 57: 218-227 (2007)
  13. Petrauskaite V, De Greyt W, Kellens M, Huyghebaert A. Physical and chemical properties of trans-free fats produced by chemical interesterification of vegetable oil blends. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 75: 489-493 (1998)
  14. Clalson SE, Clandinin MT, Cook HW, Emken EA, Filer Jr LJ. Trans fatty acids: Infant and fetal development. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 66: 717S-736S (1997)
  15. Bergh B. Nutritious value of avocado. Calif. Avocado Soc. 76: 123-135 (1992)
  16. Swisher HE. Features: Avocado oil. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 65: 1704-1706 (1988)
  17. Farmani J, Hamedi M, Safari M, Madadlou A. Trans-free Iranian vanaspati through enzymatic and chemical transesterification of triple blends of fully hydrogenated soybean, rapeseed and sunflower oils. Food Chem. 102: 827-833 (2007)
  18. AOCS. Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the AOCS. 4th ed. Cc1-25. American Oil Chemists' Society, Champaign, IL, USA (1990)
  19. Lee JH, Akoh CC, Lee KT. Physical properties of trans-free bakery shortening produced by lipase-catalyzed interesterification. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 85: 1-11 (2008)
  20. D'Souza V, deMan JM, deMan L. Chemical and physical properties of the solid fats in commercial soft margarines. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 69: 1198-1205 (1992)
  21. Xu X, Fomuso LB, Akoh CC. Synthesis of structured triacylglycerols by lipase-catalyzed acidolysis in a packed bed bioreactor. J. Agr. Food Chem. 48: 3-10 (2000)
  22. Tekin A, Cizmeci M, Karabacak H, Kayahan M. Trans FA and solid fat contents of margarines marketed in Turkey. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 79: 443-445 (2002)