Characterization and Volatile Flavor Components in Glutinous Rice Wines Prepared with Different Yeasts of Nuruks

누룩에서 분리한 효모를 이용한 찹쌀발효주의 이화학적 특성 및 휘발성 향기성분

  • Kim, Hye-Ryun (Traditional Food Research Division, Korea Food Research Institute) ;
  • Kwon, Young-Hee (Traditional Food Research Division, Korea Food Research Institute) ;
  • Jo, Sung-Jin (Traditional Food Research Division, Korea Food Research Institute) ;
  • Kim, Jae-Ho (Traditional Food Research Division, Korea Food Research Institute) ;
  • Ahn, Byung-Hak (Traditional Food Research Division, Korea Food Research Institute)
  • 김혜련 (한국식품연구원 전통식품연구단) ;
  • 권영희 (한국식품연구원 전통식품연구단) ;
  • 조성진 (한국식품연구원 전통식품연구단) ;
  • 김재호 (한국식품연구원 전통식품연구단) ;
  • 안병학 (한국식품연구원 전통식품연구단)
  • Published : 2009.06.30

Abstract

In order to investigate the effect of different yeasts (La Parisienne (LP), Y18-2, Y54-3, Y90-2, Y90-9 and Y272-7) from nuruks on the quality of Glutinous rice wines, physicochemical properties and volatile flavor components were evaluated. Glutinous rice wines prepared with different yeasts were analyzed for ethanol, pH, total acid, amino acid, soluble solid, coloring degree, UV absorbance, reducing sugar, organic acid, free sugar and volatile compounds. After fermentation for 17 days, the ethanol contents ranged from 13.40 to 14.50%, while the total acid levels were from 0.33 to 0.44%. The amino acid contents in six samples ranged from 0.13 to 0.18%, while soluble solid contents ranged from 12.1 to $14.7^{\circ}Bx$. The glutinous rice wine prepared with LP showed the highest level of coloring degree, soluble solid and reducing sugar among six samples. Organic acid contents of the glutinous rice wine prepared with LP had the highest levels of lactic acid and acetic acid, while the glutinous rice wine prepared with Y90-9 had the highest level of succinic acid. In all glutinous rice wines tested, the most abundant free sugars were glucose followed by maltose. Volatile flavor components in the glutinous rice wines were identified by using GC-MSD. Nineteen esters, ten alcohols, eight acids, one aldehyde and one miscellaneous compound were identified in the glutinous rice wines. Using relative peak area, it was found that other than ethyl alcohol, hexadecanoic acid ethyl ester was the major component, predominantly found in the range of 2.73-10.41%. Phenylethyl alcohol, isoamyl alcohol, ethyl oleate, ethyl linoleate and tetradecanoic acid ethyl ester were some of the major volatile components present through the fermentation, respectively. Overall, it was shown that different yeast strains from nuruks greatly affected chemical and volatile characteristics of the glutinous rice wines.

Keywords

volatile flavor component;glutinous rice wine;yeast;fermentation

References

  1. Chang KJ, Yu TJ. Studies on the components of sogokju, and commercial yakju. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 13: 307-313 (1981)
  2. Lee SR. Hankuk eui Balhyo Sikpum (Fermented Foods of Korea). Ewha Women's University Press, Seoul, Korea. pp. 222-294 (1986)
  3. Eun, JB, Jin TY, Wang MH. The effect of waxy glutinous rice degree of milling on the quality of jinyangju, a Korean traditional rice wine. Korean. J. Food Sci. Technol. 39: 546-551 (2007)
  4. Lee TS, Choi JY. Volatile flavor components in takju fermented with mashed glutinous rice and barley rice. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 30: 638-643 (1998)
  5. Shin KR, Kim BC, Yang JY, Kim YD. Characterization of yakju prepared with yeasts from fruits 1. Volatile components in yakju during fermentation. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 28: 794-800 (1999)
  6. Lee HS, Lee TS, Noh BS. Volatile flavor components in the mashes of takju prepared using different yeasts. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 39: 593-599 (2007)
  7. So MH, Lee YS, Noh WS. Changes in microorganisms and main components during takju brewing by a modified nuruk. Korean J. Food Nutr. 12: 226-232 (1999)
  8. Yuda, J. Volatile compounds from beer fermentation. J. Soc. Brew. Japan 71: 818-830 (1976)
  9. Park JC, Ok M, Cha JY, Cho YS. Isolation and identification of the high-glutathione producing Saccharomyces cerevisiae FF-8 from Korean traditional rice wine and optimal producing conditions. J. Korean Soc. Agric. Chem. Biotech. 46: 348-352 (2003)
  10. Seo MJ, Ryu SR. Screening and characteristics of ethanol tolerant strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae SE211. Korean J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 30: 216-222 (2002)
  11. Kim HR, Jo SJ, Lee SJ, Ahn BH. Physicochemical and sensory characterization of a Korean traditional rice wine prepared from different ingredients. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 40: 551-557 (2008)
  12. Kim JY, Koh JS. Fermentation characteristics of Jeju foxtail millet- wine by isolated alcoholic yeast and saccharifying mold. J. Korean Soc. Appl. Biol. Chem. 47: 85-91 (2004)
  13. Kang TY, Oh GH, Kim KN. Isolation and identification of yeast strains producing high concentration of ethanol with high viability. Korean J. Appl. microbiol. Biotechnol. 28: 309-315 (2000)
  14. Shin HS, Rhee JY. Comparative studies on the lipid content and neutral lipid composition in nonglutinous and glutinous rice. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 18: 137-142 (1986)
  15. Shin YD, Cho DH. A study on the microflora changes during takju brewing. Korean J. Microbiol. 8: 53-64 (1970)
  16. Kim JY, Koh JS. Screening of brewing yeasts and saccharifying molds for foxtail millet-wine making. J. Korean Soc. Appl. Biol. Chem. 47: 78-84 (2004)
  17. Jung HK, Park CD, Park HH, Lee GD, Lee IS, Hong JH. Manufacturing and characteristics of Korean traditional liquor, hahyangju prepared by Saccharomyces cerevisiae HA3 isolated from traditional nuruk. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 38: 659-667 (2006)
  18. Bruce WZ, Kenneth CF, Barry HG, Fred SN. Wine Analysis and Production. Chapman & Hall, New York, NY, USA. pp. 370-372 (1995)
  19. Lee ZS, Lee TW. Studies on the microflora of takju brewing. Korean J. Microbiol. 8: 116-133 (1970)
  20. Arctander S. Perfume and Flavor Chemicals (Aroma Chemicals). Montclair, NJ, USA. p. 1325 (1969)
  21. Park YM, Kim SJ, Hwang IS, Cho KH, Jung ST. Physicochemical and sensory properties of jinyangju prepared with glutinous rice and nonglutinous rice. Korean J. Food culture. 20: 346-351 (2005)
  22. Han EH, Lee TS. Noh BS, Lee DS. Quality characteristics in mash of takju prepared by using different nuruk during fermentation. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 29: 555-562 (1997)
  23. Japan Sake Brewers Association. A book with notes National Tax Service Methods of Analysis, 4th ed. Tokyo, Japan. pp. 27-30 (1993)
  24. Jin TY, Chung HJ, Eun JB. The effect of fermentation temperature on the quality of jinyangju, a Korean traditional rice wine. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 38: 414-418 (2006)
  25. NTSTS Institute. Textbook of alcoholic beverage-making. National Tax Service Technical Service Institute, Seoul, Korea (1997)
  26. Bruce WZ, Kenneth CF, Barry HG, Fred SN. Wine Analysis and Production. Chapman & Hall, New York, USA. pp. 447-449 (1995)
  27. Encyclopedia CHIMICA. Kyolis Publishing & Printing Co. Ltd. Tokyo, Japan. Vol. 11, p. 110, p. 811, p. 847, Vol. 2, p. 481 (1964)
  28. Seo MY, Lee JK, Ahn BH, Cha SH. The changes of microflora during the fermentation of takju and yakju. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 37: 61-66 (2005)
  29. Kim HR, Baek SH, Seo MJ, Ahn BH. Feasibility of cheongju brewing with wild type yeast strains from nuruks. Korean J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 34: 244-249 (2006)
  30. Miller GL. Use of dinitrosalicylic acid reagent for determination of reducing sugar. Anal. Chem. 31: 426-428 (1959) https://doi.org/10.1021/ac60147a030
  31. Lee TS, Choi JY. Volatile flavor components in Takju fermented with mashed glutinous rice and barley rice. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 30: 638-643 (1998)
  32. Rhee SJ, Lee Jetty CY, Kim KK, Lee CH. Comparison of the traditional (samhaeju) and industrial (cheongju) rice wine brewing in Korea. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 12: 242-247 (2003)
  33. Shin KR, Kim BC, Yang JY, Kim YD. Characterization of yakju prepared with yeasts from fruits 2. Quality characteristics of yakju during fermentation. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 28: 801-804 (1999)
  34. Lee JS, Lee TS, Choi JY, Lee DS. Volatile flavor components in mash of nonglutinous rice takju during fermentation. J. Korean Agric. Chem. Soc. 39: 249-254 (1996)