Quantification of Caffeic Acid and Rosmarinic Acid and Antioxidant Activities of Hot-water Extracts from Leaves of Perilla frutescens

품종별 들깻잎 열수추출물의 caffeic acid와 rosmarinic acid의 함량 및 항산화력 비교

  • Lee, Hyun-Sun (Institute of Life Science and Natural Resource, Korea University) ;
  • Lee, Hyun-Ah (Division of Food Bioscience and Technology, College of Life Science & Biotechnology, Korea University) ;
  • Hong, Chung-Oui (Division of Food Bioscience and Technology, College of Life Science & Biotechnology, Korea University) ;
  • Yang, Sung-Yong (Division of Food Bioscience and Technology, College of Life Science & Biotechnology, Korea University) ;
  • Hong, Sung-Yu (Biobud Inc.) ;
  • Park, Sang-Yul (Miryang City Agricultural Technology Center) ;
  • Lee, Ho-Jung (Division of Life & Genetic Engineering, College of Life Science & Biotechnology, Korea University) ;
  • Lee, Kwang-Won (Division of Food Bioscience and Technology, College of Life Science & Biotechnology, Korea University)
  • 이현순 (고려대학교 식품공학부) ;
  • 이현아 (고려대학교 생명자원연구소) ;
  • 홍충의 (고려대학교 생명자원연구소) ;
  • 양성용 (고려대학교 생명자원연구소) ;
  • 홍성유 ((주)바이오버드) ;
  • 박상률 (밀양시 농업기술센터) ;
  • 이호정 (고려대학교 생명공학부) ;
  • 이광원 (고려대학교 생명자원연구소)
  • Published : 2009.06.30


The principal objective of this investigation was to identify adequate species for the harvest of Perilla frutescens leaves, which provide profound antioxidant activities, and harbor abundant caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid. Namchun, Donggeul-2, Bora, Sae-bora and Neul-bora variants of the plant were assessed herein. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant effects of these plants, and utilized an HPLC system to verify their caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid contents. Dried Perilla frutescens leaves were boiled at a temperature of $100^{\circ}C$ for three hours, and were lyopholized in a freezedryer. The extracts were then processed in order to confirm their antioxidant activities via 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging activity assay, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, total flavonoid content and total polyphenol content assays. According to the observed antioxidant results of the five tested species of Perilla frutescens leaves, Bora and Donggeul-2 were shown to have more potent antioxidant activities than the other tested variants. The scavenge 50% of DPPH radical ($SC_50$ of DPPH) values were 241 ${\mu}g$ DM/mL in Donggeul-2 and 261 ${\mu}g$ DM/mL in Bora. Based on the results of the FRAP assay, the Bora variant showed a value of 796 mM $FeSO_4$ $7H_2O/g$ DM, and Donggeul-2 exhibited a value of 748 mM $FeSO_4$ $7H_2O/g$ DM, of which the total polyphenol contents were measured as 69.4 g GAE/kg DM and 61.8 g GAE/kg DM, respectively. Moreover, the Bora variant had the highest level of caffeic acid, and Donggeul-2 showed the highest rosmarinic acid content among the tested samples (0.87 mg/100 g wet base and 121 mg/100 g wet base, respectively). According to the results of this experiment, we selected two species, Bora and Donggeul-2, which were both verified to contain adequate and favorable antioxidant activities.


  1. Hyun KW, Kim JH, Song KJ, Lee JB, Jang JH, Kim YS, Lee JS. Physiological functionality in geumsan Perilla leaves from greenhouse and field cultivation. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 35: 975-979 (2003)
  2. Didier T, Anne-Dominique L, Eric H, Jacqueline AM, Karine F, Celine J, Gerard C, Pierre P. Chicoric acid, a new compound able to enhance insulin release and glucose uptake. Biochem. Biophys. Res.Commun. 377: 131-135 (2008) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2008.09.088
  3. Yu HE. Screening of bioactive compounds from mushroom Pholiota sp. Korean J. Mycol. 14: 79-84 (2006)
  4. Cho MS. A study of intakes of vegetables in Korea. Korean J. Food Culture 18: 601-612 (2003)
  5. Zoran M, Dorde M, Nada K. Polyphenol contents and antioxidant activity of Maydis stigma extracts. Biores. Technol. 96: 873-877 (2005) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2004.09.006
  6. Wang KJ, Zhang YJ, Yang CR. Antioxidant phenolic compounds from rhizomes of Polygonum paleaceum. J. Ethnopharmacol. 96: 483-487 (2005) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2004.09.036
  7. Kim JH, Bruce CC. Examination of fungal stress response genes using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system: Targeting genes affecting aflatoxin biosynthesis by Aspergillus flavus link. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 67: 807-815 (2005) https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-004-1821-1
  8. Kim MK, Lee HS, Kim EJ, Won NH, Chi YM, Kim BC, Lee KW. Protective effect of aqueous extract Perilla frutescens on tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced oxidative hepatotoxicity in rats. Food Chem. Toxicol. 45: 1738-1744 (2007) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2007.03.009
  9. Meng L, Lozano YF, Gaydou EM, Li B. Antioxidant activities of polyphenols extracted from Perilla frutescens varieties. Molecules 14: 133-140 (2008) https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules14010133
  10. Yang CB. Studies on lipid and fatty acid composition of Korean perilla leaves (Perilla frutescens var. japonica HARA). Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 24: 610-615 (1992)
  11. Lee JI, Han ED, See ST, Park HW. Study on the evaluation of oil quality and the differences of fatty acid composition between varieties in perilla (Perilla frutescens Britton bar. japonica Hara). Korean J. Breed. 18: 228-233 (1986)
  12. Ryu HS, Kim HS. Studies on the effects of water extract from mixture of pine needles, Sedum sarmentosum BUNGE, hijkiaorme, buckwheat, and perilla leaves on the immune function activation. Korean J. Food Nutr. 21: 269-274 (2008)
  13. Benzie IFF, Strain JJ. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of 'antioxidant power': The FRAP assay. Anal. Biochem. 239: 70-76 (1996) https://doi.org/10.1006/abio.1996.0292
  14. John JH, Hisham LH. L-Gamma-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine (glutathione; GSH) and GSH-related enzymes in the regulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines: A signaling transcriptional scenario for redox(y) immunologic sensor(s). Mol. Immunol. 42:987-1014 (2005) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molimm.2004.09.029
  15. Appel HM. Limitations of folin assays of foliar phenolics in ecological studies. J. Chem. Ecol. 27: 761-778 (2001) https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1010306103643
  16. Park HS, Ahn B, Yang CB. Studies on the functional properties of sesame and Perilla protein isolate. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 22: 350-356 (1990)
  17. Park KW. Healthy function and research situation of herbs in Korea. TALS, ALRIC, Korea 2: 27-32 (2002)
  18. Oh SI. Screening for antioxidative and antimutagenic capacities in 7 common vegetables taken by Korean. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 32: 1344-1350 (2003) https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.8.1344