Enhancement of Immune Activity of Spirulina maxima by Low Temperature Ultrasonification Extraction

저온 초음파 추출에 의한 Spirulina maxima 면역활성 증진

  • Oh, Sung-Ho (College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Han, Jae-Gun (College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Ha, Ji-Hye (College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Kim, Young (College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Jeong, Myoung-Hoon (College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Kim, Seong-Sub (College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Jeong, Hyang-Suk (College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Choi, Geun-Pyo (Department of Food Processing & Bakery, Gangwon Provincial University) ;
  • Park, Uk-Yeon (Department of Food Processing & Bakery, Gangwon Provincial University) ;
  • Kang, Do-Hyung (Korea Ocean Research & Development Institute) ;
  • Lee, Hyeon-Yong (Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Kangwon National University)
  • 오성호 (강원대학교 BT특성화학부대학) ;
  • 한재건 (강원대학교 BT특성화학부대학) ;
  • 하지혜 (강원대학교 BT특성화학부대학) ;
  • 김영 (강원대학교 BT특성화학부대학) ;
  • 정명훈 (강원대학교 BT특성화학부대학) ;
  • 김승섭 (강원대학교 BT특성화학부대학) ;
  • 정향숙 (강원대학교 BT특성화학부대학) ;
  • 최근표 (강원도립대학 식품가공제과제빵과) ;
  • 박욱연 (강원도립대학 식품가공제과제빵과) ;
  • 강도형 (한국해양연구원) ;
  • 이현용 (강원대학교 생명과학연구소)
  • Published : 2009.06.30

Abstract

The marine microalga Spirulina maxima was extracted using water or ethanol at 100 or $80^{\circ}C$ and by ultrasonification in water at $60^{\circ}C$. The ultrasonification technique generated the highest yield (19.8%). To be therapeutically useful, the extraction should yield a product with low cytotoxicity and high immunity against skin infections. The cytotoxicity of all extracts (1.0 mg/mL) was below 25%. Moreover, the cytotoxicity of the extract generated by ultrasonification was 5%. Extracts prepared in the described manners could inhibit hyaluronidase activity by up to 40% compared to the control. Increased growth of human B, T and NK cells and an increase in cytokine secretion were observed, confirming the interrelationship between both human immune and skin immune activity. The extract prepared by ultrasonification increased the growth of human B, T and NK cells up to $10.3{\times}10^4$ cells/mL, $11.3{\times}10^4$ cells/mL and $19.1{\times}10^4$ cells/mL, respectively. The extract prepared by ultrasonification also greatly increased the secretion of both IL-6 and $TNF-{\alpha}$. Moreover, it was estimated that protein, Na and leucine occupy a high ratio. Accordingly, this study has confirmed that extracts prepared as described have the potential to effectively increase skin immunity.

Keywords

Spirulina maxima;cytotoxicity;cytokine;NK cell;hyaluronidase

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