DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Effect of Waxy Barley Bread with Trans Fat on the Lipid Profile and Fatty Acid Composition in Healthy Korean Adults

Trans 지방을 첨가한 찹쌀보리빵의 섭취가 건강한 성인의 혈장 지질수준과 지방산 조성에 미치는 영향

  • Noh, Kyung-Hee (BK21 Center of Smart Foods and Drugs, Food Science Institute, and Biohealth Product Research Center, Inje University) ;
  • Huh, Young (BK21 Center of Smart Foods and Drugs, Food Science Institute, and Biohealth Product Research Center, Inje University) ;
  • Jang, Ji-Hyun (BK21 Center of Smart Foods and Drugs, Food Science Institute, and Biohealth Product Research Center, Inje University) ;
  • Shin, Jin-Hyuk (BK21 Center of Smart Foods and Drugs, Food Science Institute, and Biohealth Product Research Center, Inje University) ;
  • Lee, Mi-Ock (Dept. of Korean Food & Culinary Arts, Youngsan University) ;
  • Lee, Kyung-Sik (Medical School, Gachon University of Medicine and Science) ;
  • Lee, Seong-Hwan (Medical School, Korea University) ;
  • Kim, Do-Hoon (Medical School, Korea University) ;
  • Park, Yong-Kyu (Medical School, The Catholic University of Korea) ;
  • Cho, Kyung-Hwan (Medical School, Korea University) ;
  • Song, Young-Sun (BK21 Center of Smart Foods and Drugs, Food Science Institute, and Biohealth Product Research Center, Inje University)
  • 노경희 (인제대학교 BK21 식의약생명공학과, 식품과학연구소 및 바이오헬스 소재 연구센터) ;
  • 이영은 (인제대학교 BK21 식의약생명공학과, 식품과학연구소 및 바이오헬스 소재 연구센터) ;
  • 장지현 (인제대학교 BK21 식의약생명공학과, 식품과학연구소 및 바이오헬스 소재 연구센터) ;
  • 신진혁 (인제대학교 BK21 식의약생명공학과, 식품과학연구소 및 바이오헬스 소재 연구센터) ;
  • 이미옥 (영산대학교 한국식품조리학과) ;
  • 이경식 (가천의과학대학교 의과대학) ;
  • 이승환 (고려대학교 의과대학) ;
  • 김도훈 (고려대학교 의과대학) ;
  • 박용규 (가톨릭대학교 의과대학) ;
  • 조경환 (고려대학교 의과대학) ;
  • 송영선 (인제대학교 BK21 식의약생명공학과, 식품과학연구소 및 바이오헬스 소재 연구센터)
  • Published : 2009.10.31

Abstract

This study investigated the effect of waxy barley on the incorporation trans fat (tFA) into plasma lipid and lipid profile through 6 weeks trial. 39 healthy volunteers were divided into 2 groups and fed waxy barley bread (WBG) or wheat bread (WG) containing equivalent amounts of tFA (elaidic acid rich, 3.75 g/day), respectively. Plasma lipid profiles and fatty acid composition at 0, 2, 4, 6 weeks after a respective bread were studied. Plasma lipid was extracted by the method of Folch, esterified by acid transmethylation and analyzed by gas chromatography. The fatty acid composition reflected the fatty acid proportion of the test fat. However, consumption of waxy barley bread with tFA for 6 weeks affected plasma fatty acid composition including tFA. Incorporation of tFA into plasma lipid was significantly lowered compared to WBG than in WG after 6 weeks of consumption. Furthermore, saturated fatty acids such as C16:0 and C18:0 levels were also significantly lowered in WBG than in WG. Furthermore, plasma total cholesterol level and TG/HDL-cholesterol ratio were also significantly lowered in WBG compared to WG at 2, 4 and 6 weeks. These results suggest that waxy barley bread with high $\beta$-glucan lowered plasma trans, saturated fatty acid and total cholesterol levels though the inhibition of lipid absorption.

References

  1. Chung MS. 2007. How to solve the trans fatty acids problems in food? Safe Food 2: 30-37.
  2. Vijver P, Kardinaal AF, Couet C, Are A, Kafatos A, Seingrimsdottir L, Amorim CJ, Moreiras O, Becker W, Amelsvoort JM, Vidaljessel S, Salminen I, Moschandress J, Sigfusson N, Martins I, Carbajal A, Ttterfors A, Poppel G. 2000. Association between trans fatty acid intake and cardivascular risk factors in Europe: the TRANIR study. Eur J Clin Nutr 54: 126-135. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1600906
  3. Ascherio A, Willet WC. 1997. Health effects of trans fatty acids. Am J Clin Nutr 66: 258-265.
  4. Ahn MS, Suh MS, Kim HJ. 2008. Measurement of trans fatty acid formation and degree of rancidity in fat and oils according to heating conditions. Korean J Food Culture 23: 469-478.
  5. Park DJ, Park JM, Shin JH, Song JC, Kim JM. 2008. Analysis of trans fatty acid content in retort food, powdered milk, biscuit and pizza products. Korean J Food Sci Ani Resour 28: 240-245. https://doi.org/10.5851/kosfa.2008.28.2.240
  6. Chang KH, Byun GI, Park SH, Kang WW. 2008. Dough properties and bread qualities of wheat flour supplemented with rice bran. Korean J Food Preserv 15: 209-213.
  7. Lee JR, Um YH. 2004. A study of attitude toward healthy menu. Kor J Cul Res 10: 16-29.
  8. Lee YT. 2001. Dietary fiber composition and viscosity of extracts from domestic barley, wheat, oat, and rye. Korean J Food & Nutr 14: 233-238.
  9. Lee JA, Park GS, Ahn SH. 2002. Comparative of physicochemical and sensory quality characteristics of cookies added with barleys and oatmeals. Korean J Soc Food Cookery Sci 18: 238-246.
  10. Anderson JW, Story LS, Sieling B, Chen WL, Petro MS, Story J. 1984. Hypocholesterolemic effects of oar-barn intake for hypercholesterolemic men. Am J Clin Nutr 40: 1146-1155. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/40.6.1146
  11. Ryu CH, Kim SY. 2005. Study on bread-making quality with barley sourdough in composite bread. Korean J Food Cookery Sci 21: 733-741.
  12. Newman RK, Lewis SE, Newman CW, Boik RJ, Pamage RT. 1989. Hypocholesterolemic effect of barley foods on healthy men. Nutr Rep Int 39: 749-760.
  13. Newman RK, Newman CW, Graham H. 1989. The hypocholesterolemic function of barley ${\beta}$-glucans. Cereal Foods World 34: 883-886.
  14. Seog HM, Kim JS, Hong HD, Kim SS, Kim KT. 1993. Effect of parboiling on the physicochemical properties of immature barley kernels. J Korean Agric Chem Soc 36: 456-462.
  15. Seog HM, Kim SR, Choi HD, Kim HM. 2002. Effect of ${\beta}$- glucan-enriched barley fraction on the lipid and cholesterol contents of plasma and feces in rat. Korean J Food Sci Technol 34: 678-683.
  16. Jung KA, Chang YK. 1995. Effect of cereals on lipid concentration of liver and serum in the rats. Korean J Nutr 28: 5-14.
  17. Kim MK, Park JE. 1997. Effect of dietary fiber in rice and barley lipid and cadmium metabolism in the rat. Korean J Nutr 30: 252-265.
  18. Kim SR, Seog HM, Choi HD, Park YK. 2002. Cholesterollowering effects in rat liver fed barley and ${\beta}$-glucan-enriched barley fraction with cholesterol. Korean J Food Sci Technol 34: 319-324.
  19. Rural Resources Development Institute. 2006. Food Composition Table. 7 revision. National Rural Living Science Institute, Suwon, Korea.
  20. Friedewald W, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS. 1972. Estimation of the concentration of low density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem 18: 499-502.
  21. Folch J, Lees M, Sloane-Stanley GH. 1957. A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissue. J Biol Chem 226: 497-509.
  22. Rise P, Eligini S, Ghezzi S, Colli S, Galli C. 2007. Fatty acid composition of plasma, blood cells and whole blood: relevance for the assessment of the fatty acid status in humans. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 76: 363-369. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plefa.2007.05.003
  23. Chin SF, Liu W, Storkson TM, Ha YL, Pariza HW. 1992. Dietary sources of conjugated dienoic isomers of linoleic acid, a newly recognized class of anticarcinogens. J Food Compost Anal 5: 185-197. https://doi.org/10.1016/0889-1575(92)90037-K
  24. Kim YH, Paik HY. 1994. Relationship between dietary fatty acids, plasma lipids, and fatty acid compositions of plasma and RBC in young Korean females. Korean J Nutrition 27: 109-117.
  25. Chung EJ, Ahn HS, Um YS, Lee-Kim YC. 2004. Studies on fatty acid intake patterns, serum lipids and serum fatty acid compositions of high school students in Seoul. Korean J Community Nutrition 9: 263-279.
  26. Chang JH, Kim MS, Kim TW, Lee SS. 2008. Effect of soybean supplementation on blood glucose, plasma lipid levels, and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Nutr Res Pract 2: 152-157. https://doi.org/10.4162/nrp.2008.2.3.152
  27. Katan MB, Birgelen A, Deslypere JP, Penders M, Staveren WA. 1991. Biological markers of dietary intake, with emphasis on fatty acids. Ann Nutr Metab 35: 249-252. https://doi.org/10.1159/000177653
  28. Kim JS, Suh YK, Kim HS, Chang KJ, Choi H. 2003. The relationship between serum cholesterol levels and dietary fatty acid patterns, plasma fatty acids, and other lipid profile among Korean adults. Korean J Community Nutrition 8: 192-201.
  29. Rise P, Eligini S, Ghezzi S, Colli S, Galli C. 2007. Fatty acid composition of plasma, blood cells and whole blood: relevance for the assessment of the fatty acid status in humans. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 76: 363-369. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plefa.2007.05.003
  30. Akato L, Vreuls R, Irth H, Pel R, Stellaard F. 2007. Fatty acid profiling of raw human plasma and whole blood using direct thermal desorption combined with gas chromatography- mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1186: 365-371. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2007.08.080
  31. Son BK, Kim JY, Lee SS. 2008. Effect of adley, buckwheat and barley on lipid metabolism and aorta histopathology in rats fed an obesogenic diet. Ann Nutr Metab 52: 181-187. https://doi.org/10.1159/000138121
  32. Fernandez M, West KL. 2005. Mechanisms by which dietary fatty acids modulate plasma lipids. J Nutr 135: 2075-2078. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/135.9.2075
  33. Keenan JM, Goulson M, Shamlyan T, Knutson N, Korberg L, Curry L. 2007. The effect of concentrated barley ${\beta}$-glucan on blood lipids in a population of hypercholesterolemic men and women. Brit J Nutr 97: 1162-1168. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114507682968
  34. Yu YT, Lu YJ, Chiang MT, CHiang W. 2005. Physicochemical properties of water-soluble polysaccharide enriched fraction of adley and their hypolipidemic effect in hamsters. J Food Drug Anal 13: 361-367.
  35. Bruce B, Spiller GA, Klevay LM, Gallagher SK. 2000. A diet in whole and unrefined foods favorablely alters lipids, antioxidant defenses, and colon function. J Am Coll Nutr 19: 61-67. https://doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2000.10718915
  36. Keogh GF, Cooper GJS, Mulvey TB, McArdle BH, Coles GD, Monro JA, Poppitt SD. 2003. Randomized controlled crossover study of the effect of a highly ${\beta}$-glucan-enriched barley on cardiovascular disease risk factors in mildly hypercholesterolemic men. Am J Clin Nutr 78: 711-718. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/78.4.711
  37. Behall KM, Schofield DJ, Hallfrisch J. 2004. Diets containing barley significantly reduce lipids in mildly hypercholesterolemic men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 80: 1185-1193. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/80.5.1185
  38. Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Vuksan V. 2002. Soluble fiber intake at a dose approved by the US Food ana Drug Administration for a claim of health benefits: serum lipid risk factors for cardiovascular disease assessed in a randomized controlled crossover trial. Am J Clin Nutr 75: 834-839. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/75.5.834
  39. Naumann E, Rees AB, Onning G, Oste R, Wydra M, Mensink RP. 2006. Beta-glucan incorporated into a fruit drink effectively lowers serum LDL-cholesterol concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr 83: 601-605. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn.83.3.601
  40. Anderson AAM, Lampi AM, Nystrom L, Piironen V, Li L, Ward JL, Gebruers K, Courtin CM, Delcour JA, Boros D, Fras A, Dynkowska W, Rakszegi M, Bedo Z, Shewry PR, Aman P. 2008. Phytochemical and dietary fiber components in barley varieties in the healthgrain diversity screen. J Agric Food Chem 56: 9767-9776. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf802037f
  41. Dongowski G, Huth M, Gebhardt E. 2003. Steroids in the intestinal tract of rats are affected by dietary-fibre-rich barley-based diets. Brit J Nutr 90: 895-906. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN2003976
  42. Poppitt SD. 2007. Soluble fibre oat and barley ${\beta}$-glucan enriched products: can we predict cholesterol-lowering effects? Brit J Nutr 97: 1049-1050. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114507690023