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A Study on Food Frequency, Dietary Habits and Nutrition Knowledge of the Elderly Who Intake High Sodium

고 나트륨 섭취 노인의 영양지식, 식습관 및 식품섭취패턴

  • Jang, Ja-Young (Dept. of Food Science and Nutrition, and Research Institutes of Ecology for the Elderly, Pusan National University) ;
  • Kim, Mi-Jeong (Dept. of Food Science and Nutrition, and Research Institutes of Ecology for the Elderly, Pusan National University) ;
  • Han, Ji-Sook (Dept. of Food Science and Nutrition, and Research Institutes of Ecology for the Elderly, Pusan National University)
  • 장자영 (부산대학교 식품영양학과 및 노인생활환경연구소) ;
  • 김미정 (부산대학교 식품영양학과 및 노인생활환경연구소) ;
  • 한지숙 (부산대학교 식품영양학과 및 노인생활환경연구소)
  • Published : 2009.10.31

Abstract

This study was carried out to broadly profile the dietary pattern of elderly who consumed a higher amount of sodium compared to lesser sodium consumers. Na index 14, an instant food frequency questionnaire (IFFQ) of 40 items characterizing a high amount of sodium and a food frequency questionnaire of 63 food items that were used in nationwide surveys were adopted for the assessment of dietary characteristics of the subjects. The Na index 14 consisted of food items such as kimchi stew, bean paste stew, cooked spinach dish, seaweed soup, fish stew, roasted anchovy, and seasoned vegetables. Also, the survey constructs included nutritional knowledge and anthropometric measurements of the subjects. Out a total of 135 participants, 58 elderly were determined as the high sodium intake group (HSIG) and the other 77 were the control group, via a formerly validated Na index and sodium-associated dietary habits scale (SDH). Dietary habits of "add salt or soy sauce to foods", "drink up the broth of soups and stews", and "brined fishes and vegetables daily" were among the most significant differences between HSIG and control group in SDH assessment. In addition, the HSIG were less likely to have regular meals, adequate amount of meals, and nutritionally balanced meals than the control, with the differences manifesting more in females than males. Additional findings included that the HSIG possessed a poorer nutritional knowledge and obtained much higher scores on the IFFQ. Taken together, the study urges the needs of nutrition education for the elderly who habitually salt their foods and maintain a less desirable dietary style.

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