The Total Phenolic Contents and DPPH Radical Scavenging Activities of Korean Potatoes according to Physical Characteristics and Cooking Methods

한국산 감자의 기관별, 품종별, 중량별, 분포별 및 조리 방법에 따른 총 페놀 함량과 DPPH 라디칼 소거능에 관한 연구

  • Im, Hyo-Won (Division of Food Service Industry, Uiduk University) ;
  • Suh, Bong-Soon (Division of Food Service Industry, Uiduk University)
  • 임효원 (위덕대학교 외식산업학부) ;
  • 서봉순 (위덕대학교 외식산업학부)
  • Received : 2008.09.26
  • Accepted : 2009.04.21
  • Published : 2009.06.30


This study was conducted to measure the total polyphenol contents and DPPH radical scavenging activities of different potato plants parts, varieties, and grades, and by distribution and different cooking conditions. The results were as follows. For the plant parts, total phenolic content and DPPH radical scavenging activity were highest in the flowers followed by leaves and stems, respectively. Among 5 potato varieties, 'Jasim' had the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity and the activity of its pulp was lower than that of its cortex(peel). Regardless of potato grade, the cortexes(peel) of samples had two-fold higher DPPH radical scavenging activity than pulp, and the Grade SS potato had the highest phenolic content. It was also found that the bud ends and stem ends had comparably larger amounts of phenolic compounds in horizontally cut potatoes. Finally, the descending order for DPPH radical scavenging activity, according to different cooking conditions, was as follows: gas oven range-baking, frying, microwave-heating, sauteing, boiling in 1% saline solution, steaming, and boiling in 3% saline solution.


  1. 이규화 (2003) 감자 유전자원 평가 및 메탄올 추출물에서의 페놀성 항산화 물질 분석에 의한 고 기능성 감자 품종 선발. 농업과학연구소 논문집 14: 114-115.
  2. Aldrich JR, Oliver JE, Shifflet T, Smith CL, Diverly GP (2007) Semiochemical investigations of the insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus (Say). J Chem Ecol 33: 1477-1493.
  3. Anand C, Umranikar C, Shintre P, Damle A, Kale J, Joshi J, Watve, M (2007) Presence of two types of flowers with respect to nectar sugar in two gregariously flowering species. J Biosci 32: 769-774.
  4. Bae SJ (2002) The effects of anticarcinogenic activity of Solanum tuberosum peel fractions. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nut. 31: 905-909.
  5. Benvenuti S, Pellati F, Melegari M, Bertelli D (2004) Polyphenols, anthocyanins, ascorbic acid, and radical scavenging activity of rubus, ribes, and aronia. J Food Sci 69: 164-169.
  6. Benzi G, Moretti A (1995) Are reactive oxygen species involved in Alzheimer's disease. Neurbio Aging 16: 661-674.
  7. Blois MS (1958) Antioxidant determinations by the use of a stable free radical. Nature 26: 1199-1200.
  8. Cha JY, Cho YS (1999) Effect of potato polyphenolics on lipid peroxidation in rats. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 28: 1131-1136.
  9. Cha JY, Cho YS (2000) Effect of potato polyphenolics on the hyperlipidemia in rats. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 29: 274-279.
  10. Choi HM (1976) A study on the phenolic content of potatoes. Korean J Food Sci Technol 8: 80-84.
  11. Eaks IL (1960) Physiological studies of chilling injury in citrus fruits. Plant Physiol 35: 632-636.
  12. Elliger CA, Wong Y, Chan BG, Jr Waiss AC (1984) Groth inhibitors in tomato (Lycoperisicon) to tomato fruit worm (Heliothiszea). J Chem Ecol 7: 753-758.
  13. Frankel EN (1996) Antioxidants in lipid foods and their on food quality. Food Chemistry 57: 51-54.
  14. Friedman M, Smith GA (1984) Inactivation of quercetin mutagenicity. Food Che Toxicol 22: 535-539.
  15. Friedman M, Dao L (1992) Distribution of glycoalkaloids in potato plants and commercial potato products. J Agric Food Chem 40: 419-423
  16. Hammerschmide PA, Pratt DE (1977) Phenolic antioxidents of dried soybeans. J Food Sci 43: 556-561.
  17. Hawkes JG (1988) The evolution of cultivated potatoes and their tuber-bearing wild relatives. Kultrup-flanze 36: 189-208.
  18. Han JS, Kim JA, Han GP, Kim DS, Kozukue N, Lee KR (2004) Quality characteristics of functional cookies with added potato peel. Korean J Soc Food Cookery Sci 20: 607-613.
  19. Han GP, Han JS, Kozukue N, Kim DS, Park ML, Lee KR (2005) Quality characteristics of potato added functional cream soup. Korean J Soc Food Cookery Sci 21: 12-17.
  20. Ito NS, Fukushima A, Hasegawa M, Shibata, Ogis OT (1983) Carcinogenicity of butylated hydroxy antisole in F344 rats. J Nat Cancer Inst 70: 343-347.
  21. Kozukue N, Ogata K (1972) Physiological and chemical studies of chilling injury in pepper fruits. J Food Sci 37: 708-711.
  22. Koukol L, Conn EE (1961) The metabolism of aromatic compound in higher plants. J Biol Chem 236: 2692-2698.
  23. Kozukue N, Kozukue E, Susumi S (1987) Glycoakaloids in potato plants and tubers. HortSci 22: 294-296.
  24. Lampitt LH, Bushill JH, Rooke HS, Jackson FM (1943) Solanine, glycoside of the potato. II. Distribution in the potato plant. J Soc Chem Ind 62: 48-51.
  25. Laughton MJ, Evans PJ, Moroney MA, Hoult JRS, Halliwell B (1981) Inhibition of mammalian 5-lip-oxygenase and cyclo-oxigenase by flavonoids and phenolic dietary additives: relationship to antioxidant activity and to iron ionreducing ability. Biochem Pharm 42: 1673-1681.
  26. Lee JS, Hwang YJ (2003) A study of rheology with cooking methods of potato. Korean Journal of Culinary Research 9: 85-97.
  27. Lee JH, Lee SR (1994) Analysis of phenolic substances content on Korean plants foods. Korean J Food Sci Thechnol 26: 310-316.
  28. Li ZG, Lee RM, Shen DL (2006) Analysis of volatile compounds emitted from fresh Syringa oblata flowers in different florescence by headspace solid-phase microextractiongas chromatography mass spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta 18: 43-49.
  29. Malmberg AG, Theander O (1985) Determination of chlorogenic acid in potato tubers. J Agric Food Chem 33: 549-551.
  30. Minamikawa T, Uritani I (1964) Phenylalanine deaminase and tyrosine deaminase in sliced a black rot infested sweet potao root. Arch Biochem Biophys 108: 573-574.
  31. Mondy NI, Gosselin B (1998) Effect of peeling on total phenols, total glycoalkaloids, discoloration and flavor of cooked potatoes. J Food Sci 53: 756-759.
  32. Nandita S, Rajini PS (2004) Free radical scavenging activity of an aqueous extract of potato peel. Food Chem 85: 611-619.
  33. Nara K, Miyoshi T, Honma T, Koga H (2006) Antioxidant activity of bound-form phenolics in potato peel. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 70: 1489-1491.
  34. NO JK, Soung DY, Kim YJ, Shim KH, Jun YS, Rhee SH, Yokozawa T, Chung HY (1999) Inhibition of tyrosinase by green tea components. Life Sci 21: 241-246.
  35. Onyeneho SN, Hettiaachchy NS (1993) Antioxidant activity, fatty acid and phenolic acid composition of potato peels. J Sci Food Agric 62: 345-350.
  36. Park YE, Cho HM, Lee HJ, Hwang YS, Choi SSN, Lee SJ, Park ES, Lim JD, Choung MG (2007) Antioxidant and inhibition on angiotensin convertiong enzyme activity of colored potato extracts. Korean J Crop Sci 52: 447-452.
  37. Papadopoulos G, Boskou D (1991) Antioxidant effect of natural phenols on olive oil. J Am Oil Chem Soc 68: 669- 675.
  38. Rohrdanz E, Kahl R (1988) Alteration of antioxidant enzyme expression on response to hydrogen peroxide. Free Radical Biol Med 24: 27-38.
  39. Sinden SL, Sanford LL, Cantelo WW, Deahl KL (1988) Bioassays of segregating plants. A strategy for studying chemical defense. J Chem Ecol 14: 1941-1950.
  40. Sommer NF (1960) Fresh fruit temperatures and transit injury. Proc Amer Soc Hort Sci 76: 156-162.
  41. Tanaka T, Kawamori T, Ohnishi M, Okamoto K, Mori H, Hara A (1993) Inhibition of 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide-induced rat tongue carcinogenesis by the naturally occurring plant phenolic caffeic, ellagic, chlorogenic, and ferulic acids. Carcinogenesis 14: 1321-1325.
  42. Tanaka T (1994) Cancer chemoprevention by natural products. Oncol Rep 11: 39-155.
  43. Ukiya M, Akihisa T, Yasukawa K, Koike K, Takahashi A, Suzuki T, Kimura Y (2007) Triterpene glycosides from the flower petals of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) and their anti-inflammatory activity. J Nat Prod 70: 813-816.
  44. Wiseman H (1996) Dietary influences on membrane function; importment in protection against oxidative damage and disease. Nutritional Biochemistry. 7: 2-6.
  45. Zucker M (1955) Induction of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase by light and its relation to chlorogenic acid synthesis in potato tissue. Plant Physol 40: 779-784.