- Volume 9 Issue 1
DOI QR Code
Reliability of External Ear Measurements Obtained by Direct, Photocopier Scanning and Photo Anthropometry
- Liu, Bor-Shong (Department of Industrial Engineering and Management St. John's University) ;
- Tseng, Hsien-Yu (Department of Industrial Engineering and Management St. John's University) ;
- Chia, Tung-Chung (Department of Business Administration Ling Tung University)
- Received : 2009.06.12
- Accepted : 2010.01.18
- Published : 2010.03.01
The purpose of this study was to compare the consistency of external ear measurements obtained by electronic digital caliper, photocopier scanning and digital photographic methods. Photogrammetric measurements were made after image editing software was used to optimize the brightness, contrast, size and image clarity. The CorelDRAW dimension tool was used to create a dimension line that measured the vertical and horizontal length between any two landmarks. Results of repeated measures analysis of variance revealed no significant differences in length and width of the pinna between the three methods. The reliability of the three measurement techniques showed a high degree of consistency. Further study and efforts could be extended to measurement hands, foots and facial dimensions by present techniques.
Anthropometry;Ear Dimensions;Reliability;Photogrammetry;Intra-Class Correlation Coefficient
- Alexander, M. and Laubach, L. (1968), Anthropometry of the human ear, Aerospace Medical Research Laboratories, Wright Patterson, Ohio.
- Barut, C. and Aktunc, E. (2006), Anthropometric measurements of the external ear in a group of Turkish primary school students, Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, 30, 255-259. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00266-005-0182-1
- Bhatia, G., Vannier, M. W., Smith, K. E., Commean, P. K., Riolo, J., and Young, V. L. (1994), Quantification of facial surface change using a structured light scanner. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 94, 768-774. https://doi.org/10.1097/00006534-199411000-00003
- Bozkir, M. G., Karakas, P., Yavuz, M., and Dere, F. (2006), Morphometry of the external ear in our adult population, Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, 30, 81-85. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00266-005-6095-1
- Coward, T. J., Watson, R. M., and Scott, B. J. J. (1997), Laser scanning for the identification of repeatable landmarks of the ears and face, British Journal of Plastic Surgery, 50, 308-314. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0007-1226(97)90538-5
- Farkas, L. G. (1981), Anthropometry of the head and face in medicine, New York: Elservier.
- Farkas, L. G., Posnick, J. C., and Hreczko, T. M. (1992), Anthropometric growth study of the ear, Cleft Palate-craiofacial Journal, 29, 324-329. https://doi.org/10.1597/1545-1569(1992)029<0324:AGSOTE>2.3.CO;2
- Feathers, D. J., Paquet, V. L., and Drury, C. G. (2004), Measurement consistency and three-dimensional electromechanical anthropometry, International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 33, 181-190. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ergon.2003.08.001
- Gavan, J. A. (1950), The consistency of anthropometric measurements, American Journal of Physical Anthropometry, 8, 417-426. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.1330080414
- Hinkle, D. E., Wiersma, W., and Jurs, S. G. (2003), Applied statistics for the behavioral sciences, 5th Edition, Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
- Hsu, S. H., Peng Y., and Wu, S. P. (2005), Human Factors Engineering, 3rd Edition, Taichung: Tsang Hai Book Publishing.
- Inoue, K., Ichikawa, R., Nagashima, M., and Kodama, G. (1995), Sex differences in the shapes of several parts of the young Japanese face, Applied Human Science, 14, 191. https://doi.org/10.2114/ahs.14.191
- Klipstein-grobusch, K., Georg, T., and Boeing, H. (1997), Interviewer variability in anthropometric measurements and estimates of body composition, International Journal of Epidemiology, 26, S174-S180. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/26.suppl_1.S174
- Lexwell, J. E. and Downham, D. Y. (2005), How to assess the reliability of measurements in rehabilitation, American of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 84, 719-723. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.phm.0000176452.17771.20
- Lindsey, J. K. (1993), Models for Repeated Measurements, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Liu, B. S. (2008), Incorporating anthropometry into design of ear-related products, Applied Ergonomics, 39, 115-121. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2006.12.005
- McGraw, K. O. and Wong, S. P. (1996), Forming inferences about some intraclass correlation coefficients, Psychological Methods, 1, 30-46. https://doi.org/10.1037/1082-989X.1.1.30
- Moss, J. P., Linney, A. D., Grindrod, S. R., and Mosse, C. A. (1989), A laser scanning system for the measurement of facial morphology, Optics and Lasers in Engineering, 10, 179-190. https://doi.org/10.1016/0143-8166(89)90036-5
- Norusis, M. (2004), SPSS 13.0 Statistical Procedures Companion, Upper Saddle-River: Prentice Hall.
- Portney, L. G. and Watkins, M. P. (1993), Foundations of clinical research: applications to practice, Stamford: Appleton and Lange.
- Wickens, C. D., Lee, J. D., Liu, Y., and Gordon-Becker, S. E. (2004), An introduction to human factors engineering, 2nd Edition, Upper Saddle-River: Pearson Education.
- Jung, H. S. and Jung, H. S. (2003), Surveying the dimensions and characteristics of Korean ears for the ergonomic design of ear-related products, International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 31, 361-373. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-8141(02)00237-8
- Nechala, P., Mahoney, J., and Farkas, L. G. (1999), Digital two-dimensional photogrammetry: A comparison of three techniques of obtaining digital photographs, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 103, 1819-1825. https://doi.org/10.1097/00006534-199906000-00002
- Anthropometry and classification of auricular concha for the ergonomic design of earphones pp.10908471, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1002/hfm.20726