Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium infection in a lineolated parakeet (Bolborhynchus lineola)

  • Lee, So-Young (Department of Veterinary Internal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University) ;
  • Yoo, Jong-Hyun (Department of Veterinary Internal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, and BK21 Basic & Diagnostic Veterinary Specialist Program for Animal Diseases, Konkuk University) ;
  • Yoon, Jang-Won (Department of Microbiology and Research Institute for Translational System Biomics, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine) ;
  • Kim, Dae-Young (Veterinary Medicine Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri) ;
  • Cho, Ho-Seong (Veterinary Medicine Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri) ;
  • Park, Chul (Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California) ;
  • Park, Hee-Myung (Department of Veterinary Internal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, and BK21 Basic & Diagnostic Veterinary Specialist Program for Animal Diseases, Konkuk University)
  • Accepted : 2010.02.25
  • Published : 2010.03.30

Abstract

A 2-year-old lineolated parakeet (Bolborhynchus lineola) was presented with abdominal distention and respiratory distress for two months. The bird was poorly fleshed and the liver was enlarged on coelomic palpation. Plain and contrast radiographic examinations exhibited hepatomegaly and distended intestinal loop, which compromised the air sacs. Multifocal hyperechogenecity was observed in the liver on ultrasonography. Postmortem gross examination revealed hepatomegaly with numerous pinpoint tan foci in the hepatic parenchyma and distended small intestine filled with adult ascarids. Microscopically, granulomatous hepatitis and enteritis infected by intrahistiocytic acid-fast bacilli were evident. Polymerase chain reaction indicated that the acid-fast bacilli were Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium.

References

  1. Dorrestein GM. Bacteriology. In: Altman RB, Clubb SL, Dorrestein GM (eds.). Avian Medicine and Surgery. 1st ed. pp. 350-363, Saunders, Philadelphia, 1997
  2. Guerrero C, Bernasconi C, Burki D, Bodmer T, Telenti A. A novel insertion element from Mycobacterium avium, IS1245, is a specific target for analysis of strain relatedness. J Clin Microbiol 1995, 33, 304-307
  3. Ristola MA, von Reyn CF, Arbeit RD, Soini H, Lumio J, Ranki A, Bühler S, Waddell R, Tosteson AN, Falkinham JO 3rd, Sox CH. High rates of disseminated infection due to non-tuberculous mycobacteria among AIDS patients in Finland. J Infect 1999, 39, 61-67 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0163-4453(99)90104-4
  4. Gelis S, Gill JH, Oldfield T, Jaensch SM, Raidal SR. Mycobacteriosis in gang gang cockatoos (Callocephalon fimbriatum). Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract 2006, 9, 487-494 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cvex.2006.05.020
  5. Hampson SJ, Portaels F, Thompson J, Green EP, Moss MT, Hermon-Taylor J, McFadden JJ. DNA probes demonstrate a single highly conserved strain of Mycobacterium avium infecting AIDS patients. Lancet 1989, 14, 65-68
  6. Lennox AM. Mycobacteriosis in companion psittacine birds: a review. J Avian Med Surg 2007, 21, 181-187 https://doi.org/10.1647/1082-6742(2007)21[181:MICPBA]2.0.CO;2
  7. Moravkova M, Hlozek P, Beran V, Pavlik I, Preziuso S, Cuteri V, Bartos M. Strategy for the detection and differentiation of Mycobacterium avium species in isolates and heavily infected tissues. Res Vet Sci 2008, 85, 257-264 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2007.10.006
  8. Morita Y, Maruyama S, Hashizaki F, Katsube Y. Pathogenicity of Mycobacterium avium complex serovar 9 isolated from painted quail (Excalfactoria chinensis). J Vet Med Sci 1999, 61, 1309-1312 https://doi.org/10.1292/jvms.61.1309
  9. Schmidt RE, Reavill DR, Phalen DN. Liver. In: Pathology of Pet and Aviary Birds. 1st ed. pp. 67-94, Blackwell, Iowa, 2003
  10. Mijs W, de Haas P, Rossau R, Van der Laan T, Rigouts L, Portaels F, van Soolingen D. Molecular evidence to support a proposal to reserve the designation Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium for bird-type isolates and ‘M. avium subsp. Hominissuis' for the human/porcine type of M. avium. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2002, 52, 1505-1518 https://doi.org/10.1099/ijs.0.02037-0
  11. Pollock CG. Implication of mycobacteria in clinical disorders. In: Harrison GJ, Lightfoot TL (eds.). Clinical Avian Medicine. 1st ed. pp. 681-690, Spix Publishing, Florida, 2006
  12. Ledwo A, Szeleszczuk P, Zwolska Z, Augustynowicz-Kope E, Sapierzy ski R, Kozak M. Experimental infection of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) with five Mycobacterium species. Avian Pathol 2008, 37, 59-64 https://doi.org/10.1080/03079450701802255
  13. Yhee JY, Kim KT, Kim JH, Cho SW, Lyoo YS, Kim TJ, Sur JH. Histopathological diagnosis of avian tuberculosis and aspergillosis in a Snow goose. Korean J Vet Res 2007, 47, 443-447