- Volume 15 Issue 1
DOI QR Code
Sodium and Potassium Balance and Their Relation to Nutrient Intakes in Young Adult Men and Women
- Kim, Eun-Young (Department of Food and Nutrition, Sookmyung Women's University) ;
- Choi, Mi-Kyeong (Department of Food and Nutrition, Kongju National University)
- Published : 2010.03.31
This study was conducted to investigate sodium and potassium balances, as well as correlations among the relating factors in adult males and females. We collected blood, urine and feces samples as well as a dietary intake survey from 50 subjects. Then, we analyzed the sodium and potassium contents in blood, urine and feces, and evaluated their state of balance. The average ages of the study targets were 24.7 years old for males and 22.8 years old for females. The daily energy intake by the males was 1733.4 kcal and by the females was 1570.3 kcal. Sodium intakes were 138.3 mEq and 127.5 mEq for males and females, respectively. Potassium intakes were 43.1 mEq and 49.3 mEq, respectively. The daily excretions of sodium through urine were 136.6 mEq by males and 97.0 mEq by females and the excretions through feces were 2.2 mEq and 2.0 mEq, respectively. The daily excretions of potassium through urine were 20.2 mEq and 16.5 mEq by males and females respectively, and the excretions through feces were 7.7 mEq and 7.5 mEq male to female. The retention rates of sodium were 11.7% and 14.1% male to female, respectively, and the apparent absorption rates were 98.5% and 97.8%. Additionally, the retention rates of potassium were 32.9% and 39.8% and the apparent absorptions were 81.9% and 81.3%, both male and female. It was noted that, overall, the sodium intake of adult males and females is still higher than the recommended daily sodium intake, while the potassium intakes and excretions were found to be lower. Based on the results of this study, nutritional guidance and education is recommended to encourage decreased sodium intake and increased potassium intake, according to recommended standards.
- Lee YS, Choi MK, Sung CJ, Lee YK. 2002. Effects of sodium intakes on blood pressure and blood parameters in Korean normal adult women. Korean J Nutr 35: 754-762.
- The Korean Nutrition Society. 2005. Dietary reference intake for Koreans. Kukjingihoek, Seoul, Korea
- Holbrook JT, Patterson KY, Bodner JE, Douglas LW, Veillon C, Kelsay JL, Mertz W, Smith JC Jr. 1984. Sodium and potassium intake and balance in adults consuming self-selected diets. Am J Clin Nutr 40: 786-793. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/40.4.786
- Cirillo M, Lombardi C, Laurenzi M, De Santo NG. 2002. Relation of urinary urea to blood pressure: interaction with urinary sodium. J Hum Hypertens 16: 205-212. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.jhh.1001323
- Takeda Y, Yoneda T, Demura M, Furukawa K, Miyamori I, Mabuchi H. 2001. Effects of high sodium intake on cardiovascular aldosterone synthesis in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Hypertens 19: 635-639. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004872-200103001-00017
- Ledingham JM. 1991. Sodium retention and volume expansion as mechanisms. Am J Hypertens 4: 534S-540S. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajh/4.10.534S
- Choi YS, Kim YO, Suh I. 1995. Association of blood pressure with sodium and potassium intake for adolescents. J Korean Soc Food Nutr 24: 493-501.
- Whelton PK, He J, Cutler JA, Brancati FL, Appel LJ, Follmann D, Klag MJ. 1997. Effects of oral potassium on blood pressure. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. JAMA 277: 1624-1632. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.277.20.1624
- Allsopp AL, Sutherland R, Wood P, Wooton SA. 1998. The effect of sodium balance on sweat sodium and plasma aldosterone concentration. Eur J Appl Physiol 78: 516-521. https://doi.org/10.1007/s004210050454
- Lee YK, Sung CJ, Choi MK. 1999. A study on sodium and potassium balance of college women in Seoul. Korean J Community Nutr 4: 375-381.
- Yim JE, Cho MR, Yin CS, Seo BK, Koh HK, Choue RW. 2005. Nutrients and salt consumption of hypertension patients according to treatment status. Korean J Nutr 38: 706-716.
- Park JA, Yoon JS. 2001. The effect of habitual calcium and sodium intakes on blood pressure regulating hormone in free-living hypertensive women. Korean J Nutr 34: 409-416.
- Park EY, Park YJ, Kim KW. 2000. A study of sodium consumption and related psychosocial factors among hypertensive and normal adults. Korean J Nutr 33: 833-839.
- Ahn SH, Son SM, Park JK. 2009. Health and nutritional factors related to hypertension of subjects aged over 50 in high income class－Based on the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. J Korean Diet Assoc 15: 311-327.
- KHIDI. 2008. The third Korea national health and nutrition examination survey (KNHANES IV). 2007-Nutrition Survey. Ministry of Health & Welfare, Seoul.
- Kim YS, Paik HY. 1987. Measurement of Na intake in Korean adult females. Korean J Nutr 20: 341-349.
- Sung CJ, Choi MK, Jo JH, Lee JY. 1993. Relationship among dietary intake, blood level, and urinary excretion of minerals and blood pressure in Korean rural adult men and women. Korean J Nutr 26: 89-97.
- Park TS, Lee KY. 1985. A study on the sodium and potassium intakes and their metabolism of university students in Korea. Korean J Nutr 18: 201-208.
- Smith SR, Klotman PE, Svetkey LP. 1992. Potassium chloride lowers blood pressure and causes natriuresis in older patients with hypertension. J Am Soc Nephrol 2: 1302-1309.
- Bland JH. 1966. Introductory remarks: some usual, unusual properties of liquids in general and water in particular. Fed Proc 25: 951-953.
- Kim GJ. 1974. Studies on the correlation between sodium chloride metabolism and blood pressure of Koreans. Korean J Physiol 8: 19-31.
- Kim KS, Paik HY. 1992. Comparative study on optimum gustation of salt and sodium intake in young and middle-aged Korean women. Korean J Nutr 25: 32-41.
- Dahl LK. 1958. Salt intake and salt need. N Engl J Med 258: 1152-1157. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM195806052582305
- Park SJ, Paik HY, Lee SY. 2007. The influence of mixed NaCl-KCl salt on sodium intake and urinary excretion of sodium and potassium. Korean J Nutr 40: 500-508.