Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activities of Different Solvent Extracts from Pine Needles in Pinus Species

  • Kang, Yoon-Han (Department of Food Science, Gangneung-Wonju National University) ;
  • Howard, Luke R. (Department of Food Science, University of Arkansas)
  • 발행 : 2010.03.31


The purpose of this study was to investigate the phenolic acid, proanthocyanidin (PAs), and flavonol glycoside contents, as well as the antioxidant activities of pine needle extracts from six species of young pine trees. The extracts were prepared from Section Pinus (Diploxylon): P. densiflora, P. sylvestris, P. pinaster and P. pinea, and Section Strobus (Haploxylon): P. koraiensis and P. strobus. Phenolics were extracted from pine needles with 80% acetone to obtain the soluble free fraction, and insoluble residues were digested with 4 M NaOH to obtain bound ethyl acetate and bound water fractions. Phenolics were analyzed by HPLC, and the hydrophilic antioxidant activity was measured using oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the soluble free fraction were higher than those of the bound ethyl acetate and bound water fractions. The main phenolics were monomers and polymers of PAs in the soluble free fraction, and phenolic acids and flavonol glycosides in bound ethyl acetate fraction. Flavonol glycosides found in different species of pine needles were qualitatively similar within fractions, but composition varied among Pinus sections. High levels of kaempferol arabinoside and an unknown compound were present in all Strobus species. The soluble free fraction had the highest antioxidant activity, followed by bound ethyl acetate and bound water fractions.


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