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Characteristics of Ambient Particulate Matter in Gwangju

광주지역 먼지 특성에 관한 연구

  • Received : 2010.03.09
  • Accepted : 2010.04.19
  • Published : 2010.04.30

Abstract

In this study, ambient particulate matter ($PM_{2.5}$ and $PM_{10}$) levels were measured and their chemical and physical properties were characterized. Two sites in Gwangju were sampled once a month from December 2008 to November 2009. The annual mean concentrations of $PM_{2.5}$ and $PM_{10}$ were $26.9\;{\mu}g/m^3$ and $46.3\;{\mu}g/m^3$, respectively, in Nongseongdong and $26.1\;{\mu}g/m^3$ and $44.8\;{\mu}g/m^3$, respectively, in Duam-dong. $PM_{2.5}$ levels were 1.8 times higher than the USA Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) national ambient air quality standard for $PM_{2.5}$ ($15\;{\mu}g/m^3$). The average $PM_{2.5}/PM_{10}$ ratio of 0.58 suggested that $PM_{2.5}$ is a significant component of the ambient particle pollution. The order of concentration of metallic elements in $PM_{2.5}$ and $PM_{10}$ was Si > Al > Fe > Zn > Pb > Cu > Mn. Cd was not detected. The earth crustal enrichment factors for Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn in $PM_{2.5}$ were higher than those in $PM_{10}$. When the earth crustal enrichment factors for Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn were higher than 10, this suggested influence from anthropogenic sources. The soil contribution ratios for $PM_{2.5}$ and $PM_{10}$ were 11.3% and 16.4%, respectively, and were higher in the fall and winter. Anions (${SO_4}^{-2}$, ${NO_3}^-$, and $Cl^-$) comprise 28.7% of $PM_{2.5}$ and 21.4% of $PM_{10}$. The correlation coefficient of Zn-Fe, Mn-Cu, Fe-Cu and Fe-Mn in $PM_{2.5}$ was high in the sampling sites, and metallic elements were primarily from anthropogenic sources such as fuel combustion and vehicle emissions.

Keywords

$PM_{2.5}$;$PM_{10}$;crustal enrichment factor;soil contribution ratio;metallic element;anion

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