- Volume 36 Issue 3
DOI QR Code
The Relationship among the Indicator PCBs in Breast Milk and Dietary Habits and Demographic Factors in Women Living in Urban Areas
대도시에 거주하는 여성의 모유 중 Indicator PCBs와 식이습성 및 인구통계학적 인자간의 관계
We, Sung-Ug;Kim, Ki-Ho;Cho, Bong-Hui;Cho, Yu-Jin;Yoon, Cho-Hee;Min, Byung-Yoon
- Received : 2010.04.21
- Accepted : 2010.06.18
- Published : 2010.06.30
In this study, breast milk levels of indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were estimated, and statistics drawn, for 22 Koreans in the general population, aged 26-38, who had resided in metropolitan areas for more than 5 years without occupational exposure to organochlorine pollutants. Concentrations of indicator PCBs were measured using the isotope dilution method with a high resolution gas chromatograph/high resolution mass detector, which provided accurate and precise data for investigation of trends, and international comparisons. The geometric mean of total indicator PCB levels was 22.3 ng/g lipid, which is significantly lower than the level in individuals from European countries. Overall, the geometric mean and 95th percentile of the most abundant congener PCB 153 were 8.04 ng/g lipid and 16.4 ng/g lipid, respectively. PCB congeners 138, 153 and 180 together accounted for about 75% of the indicator congeners analyzed. Breast milk total indicator PCB concentrations were significantly associated with age and parity, but not with body mass index (BMI), rate of body weight increase, or smoking habits. The geometric mean level of PCB 153 in breast milk from mothers with a pre-pregnant BMI <
indicator PCBs;breast milk;dietary habits;breast-feeding;urban areas
- Ahlborg, U., Hanberg, A. and Kenne, K. : Risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Report NORD, Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen, 26, 1992.
- Brouwer, A., Longnecker, M. P., Birnbaum, L. S., Cogliano, J., Kostyniak, P. and Moore, J. : Characterization of potential endocrine-related health effects at low-dose levels of exposure to PCBs. Environmental Health Perspectives, 107, 639-649, 1999. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.99107s4639
- Jensen, S. : Report of a new chemical hazard. New Science, 32, 612, 1996.
- Macdonald, R. W., Harner, T. and Fyfe, J. : Recent climate change in the Arctic and its impact on contaminant pathways and interpretation of temporal trend data. Science of the Total Environment, 342, 75-86, 2005.
- Cerna, M., Maly, M., Grabic, R., Batariova, A., Smid, J. and Benes, B. : Serum concentrations of indicator PCB congeners in the Czech adult population. Chemosphere, 72, 1124-1131, 2008. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2008.04.019
- Breivik, K., Sweetman, A., Pacyna J. M., Jones, K. C. : Towards a global historical emission inventory for selected PCB congeners - a mass balance approach. 1. Global production and consumption. Science of the Total Environment, 290, 181-198, 2002. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(01)01075-0
- Szyrwinska, K. and Lulek, J. : Exposure to specific polychlorinated biphenyls and some chlorinated pesticides via breast milk in Poland. Chemosphere, 66, 1985-1903, 2007.
- Glynn, A. W., Wolk, A., Aune, M., Atuma, S., Zettermark, S., Maele-Schmid, M., Darnerud, P. O., Becker, W., Vessby, B. and Adami, H. : Serum concentrations of organochlorines in men: a search for markers of exposure. Science of the Total Environment, 263, 197-208, 2000. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(00)00703-8
- Wingfors, H., Selden, A. I., Nilsson, C. and Haglund, P. : Identification of markers for PCB exposure in plasma from Swedish construction workers removing old elastic sealants. Annals of Occupational Hygiene Society, 50(1), 65-73, 2006.
- EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) : Opinion of the scientific panel on contaminants in the food chain on a request from the commission related to the presence of non dioxin-like PCBs in feed and food. EFSA Journal, 284, 1-137, 2005.
- CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) : Laboratory Procedure Manual Method 28 for Second National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals. 2003.
- Vezina, C. M., Walker, N. J. and Olson, J. R. : Subchronic exposure to TCDD, PeCDF, PCB126, and PCB153: effect on hepatic gene expression. Environmental Health Perspectives, 112, 1636, 2004. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.7253
- Phillips, D. L., Smith, A. B., Burse, W. W., Steele, G. K. and Hannon, W. H. : Half-life of polychlorinated biphenyls in occupationally exposed workers. Arch. Environmental Health, 44, 351-354, 1989. https://doi.org/10.1080/00039896.1989.9935905
- Park, S. A., We, S. U., Cho, B. H., Kim, K. H., Baek, J. H., Han, S. Y. and Min, B. Y. : Levels of PCDDs/ DFs and dl-PCBs in breast milk from Korean women living in Seoul and Ansan: estimation of PCDDs/DFs and dl-PCBs intake for breastfed infants. Proceedings of Environmental Health in Asia-Pacific Region, Jeju, Korea, 164-168, 2008.
- Smeds, A. and Saukko, P. : Identification and quantification of polychlorinated biphenyls and some endocrine disrupting pesticides in human adipose tissue from Finland. Chemosphere, 44, 1463-1471, 2001. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(00)00313-1
ATSDR : Toxicological Profile for Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Atlanta,
- Schaeffer, D. J., Dellinger, J. A., Needham, L. L. and Hansen, L. G. : Serum PCB profiles in Native Americans from Wisconsin based on region, diet, age and gender: implications for epidemiology studies. Science of the Total Environment, 357, 74-87, 2006. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2005.04.030
- Glynn, A. W., Granath, F., Aune, M., Atuma, S., Darnerud, P. O., Bjerlesius, R., Vainio, H. and Weiderpass, E. : Organochlorines in Swedish women: determinants of serum concentrations. Environmental Health Perspectives, 111, 349-355, 2003.
- Sandanger, T. M., Brustad, M., Sandau, C. D. and Lund, E. : Levels of persistent organic pollutants in a coastal northern Norwegian population with high fishliver intake. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 8, 552-557, 2006. https://doi.org/10.1039/b600046k
- Apostoli, P., Magoni, M., Bergonzi, R., Carasi, S., Indelicato, A., Scarcella, C. and Donato, F. : Assessment of reference values for polychlorinated biphenyl concentration in human blood. Chemosphere, 61, 413-421, 2005. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.02.034
- Wolff, M. S., Berkowitz, G. S., Brower, S., Senie, R., Bleiweiss, I. J., Tartter, P., Pace, B., Roy, N., Wallenstein, S. and Weston, A. : Organochlorine exposures and breast cancer risk in New York City women. Environmental Research, 84, 151-161, 2000. https://doi.org/10.1006/enrs.2000.4075
- Collins, J. J., Bodner, K., Burns, C. J., Budinsky, R. A., Lamparski, L. L., Wilken, M., Martin, G. D. and Carson, M. I. : Body mass index and serum chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran levels. Chemosphere 66, 1079-1085, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.06.063
- Schecter, A., Ryan, J. J. and Papke, O. : Decrease in levels and body burden of dioxins, dibenzofurans, PCBS, DDE, and HCB in blood and milk in a mother nursing twins over a thirty-eight month period. Chemosphere, 37, 1807-1816, 1998. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(98)00246-X
- Yua, Z., Palkovicovab, L., Drobnac, B., Petrikc, J., Kocanc, A., Trmovecc, T. and Picciottoa, I. H. : Comparison of organochlrine compound concentrations in colostrum and mature milk. Chemosphere, 66, 1012-1018, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.07.043
- Moon, C. H. and Paik, J. M. : Estimation of PCDDs/ PCDFs intake for Korean children and their mothers through daily foods. Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, 33(1), 11-15, 2007. https://doi.org/10.5668/JEHS.2007.33.1.011
- Moon, H. B. and Choi, H. G. : Human exposure to PCDDs, PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs associated with seafood consumption in Korea from 2005 to 2007. Environment International, 35, 279-284, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2008.07.003
- Tsukino, H., Hanaoka, T., Sasaki, H., Motoyama, H., Hiroshima, M. and Tanaka, T. : Fish intake and serum levels of organochlorines among Japanese women. Science of the Total Environment, 359, 90-100, 2006. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2005.04.014
- Schuhmacher, M., Domingo, J. L., Kiviranta, H. and Vartiainen, T. : Monitoring dioxins and furans in a population living near a hazardous waste incinerator: levels in breast milk. Chemosphere, 57, 43-49, 2004. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2004.05.007
- Kunisue, T., Muraoka, M., Ohtake, M., Sudaryanto, A., Minh, N. H., Ueno, D., Higaki, Y., Ochi, M., Tsydenova, O., Kamikawa, S., Tonegi, T., Nakamura, Y., Shimomura, H., Nagayama, J. and Tanabe, S. : Contamination status of persistent organochlorines in human breast milk from Japan: recent levels and temporal trend. Chemosphere, 64, 1601-1608, 2006. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.11.010
- Kim, B. H., Ikonomou, M. G., Lee, S. J., Kim, H. S. and Chang, Y. S. : Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls in human blood samples from Korea. Science of the Total Environment, 336, 45-56, 2005. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2004.05.030
- Park, H., Lee, S. J., Kang, J. H. and Chang, Y. S. : Congener-specific approach to human PCB concentrations by serum analysis. Chemosphere, 68, 1699-1706, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.03.058
- Kang, J. H., Park, H. K., Chang, Y. S. and Choi, J. W. : Distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human serum from urban areas in Korea. Chemosphere, 332, 1124-1133, 2008.
- Uehara, R., Peng, G., Nakamura, Y., Matsuura, N., Kondo, N. and Tada, H. : Human milk survey for dioxins in the general population in Japan. Chemosphere, 62, 1135-1141, 2006. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.05.049
- Malisch, R. and Van Leeuwen, R. : PCDD/F Results of the WHO coordinated exposure study on the levels of PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs in human milk. Organohalogen Compounds, 64, 140-143, 2003.
Supported by : 식품의약품안전청