DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

A Study of Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli and the Distribution of Indicator Microorganisms in Asan City

아산시 지표미생물의 분포와 Escherichia coli의 항생제 내성에 관한 연구

  • Received : 2010.03.27
  • Accepted : 2010.06.20
  • Published : 2010.06.30

Abstract

Efforts to evaluate water pollution using indicator microorganisms have been underway for decades, and driven by research on water purity control applications, water quality criteria are growing more and more strict. Furthermore, recent reports indicate that high concentrations of antibiotics are not absorbed, and are present in excrement from animals and humans dosed with unnecessarily high levels of antibiotics. This has emerged as very important issue from the standpoint of being an ecological and health hazard. In this study, water pollution was analyzed through physicochemical and microbiological means, and antibiotic resistance in indicator microorganisms was assessed. In physicochemical analysis, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)$_5$ and chemical oxygen demand (COD)$_{Mn}$ evaluation showed that pollution by organisms was highest at the G1 location with a high human population, and the DP location which has many livestock-containing households. The indicator organism levels at the G1 location were: Total Coliforms (1205 colony forming units (CFU)/100 ml), Fecal Coliforms (270 CFU/100 ml), Escherichia coli (253 CFU/100 ml) and Fecal Streptococci (210 CFU/100 ml), while for the DP location levels were: Total Coliforms (1480 CFU/100 ml), Fecal Coliforms (438 CFU/100 ml), E. coli (560 CFU/100 ml), and Fecal Streptococci (348 CFU/100 ml). Levels of fecal indicator microorganisms such as Fecal Coliforms, E. coli and Fecal Streptococci were high at all locations in the fall (the period after the rainy season), and the yearly distribution was similar between these organisms. If the number of livestock-containing households was high, almost all strains of E. coli (as distinct from the other indicator organisms) showed resistance to antibiotics, with the degree of resistance varying between areas. E. coli strains from the OY area in particular, which has a high population density, showed strong resistance to AM10 and Va30. While strong antibiotic resistance was observed overall at the DP and OY locations, no resistance was observed at the EB location.

Keywords

Antimicrobial resistance;E. coli;Total coliforms;Fecal Coliforms;Fecal Streptococci

References

  1. Lim, S. K., Lee, H. S., Byun, J. R., Park, S. Y. and Jung, S. C. : Antimicrobial resistance of commensal bacteria isolated from food-producing animals . Antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. isolated from pig faecal samples. Korean Journal of Veterinary Public Health, 31(1), 31-39, 2007.
  2. Jung, D. H. and Lee, Y. H. : Prevalence of fluoroquinolone- resistant river water isolates of Escherichia coli. Journal of Natural Science, SWINS, 17, 95-107, 2005.
  3. Jindal, A., Kocherginskaya, S., Mehboob, A., Robert, M., Mackie, R. I., Raskin, L. and Zilles, J. L. : Antimicrobial use and resistance in swine waste treatment systems. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 72(12), 7813-7820, 2006. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01087-06
  4. Dzidic, S. and Bedekovic, V. : Horizontal gene transfer emerging multi-drug resistance in hospital bacteria. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, 24(6), 519-526, 2003.
  5. Lee, K. S. : Distribution of antibiotics or heavy metal resistant bacteria and frequency of multi-drug resistance in Kum river area. Korean Journal of Environmental Biology, 11(2), 131-144, 1993.
  6. Coleman, M. E., Hope, B. K., Claycamp, H. G. and Cohen, J. T. : Microbial risk assessment scenarios, causality, and uncertainty. Microbe, 2(1), 13-17, 2007.
  7. World Health Organization : WHO global principles for the containment of antimicrobial resistance in animals intended for food. World Health Organization, Geneva, 2000.
  8. Bager, F. DANMAP : Monitoring antimicrobial resistance in Denmark. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 14, 271-274, 2000. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-8579(00)00135-7
  9. Maraon, N. N., Rossiter, S., Stamey, K., Joyce, K., Barrett, T. J., Tolldfson, L. K. and Angulo, F. J. : The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) for enteric bacteria, 1996-1999 : Surveillance for action. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 217, 1829-1830, 2000.
  10. Lester, S. C., del Pilar Pla, M., Wang, F., Perez Schael, I., Jiang, H. and O'Brien, T. : The carrage of Escherichia coli resistance to antimicrobial agents by healthy children in Boston, in Caracas, Venezuela and in Qin Pu, China. The New England Journal of Medicine, 323, 285-289, 1990. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199008023230501
  11. Nuru, S., Osbaldiston, G. W., Stowe, E. C. and Walker, D. : Fecal microflora of healthy cattle and pigs. Cornell Veterinary, 62, 242-253, 1972.
  12. Levin, B. R., Lipsitch, M., Perrot, V., Schrag, S., Antia, R., Simonsen, L., Walker, N. M. and Stewart, F. M. : The population genetics of antibiotic resistance. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 24, S9-16, 1997. https://doi.org/10.1093/clinids/24.Supplement_1.S9
  13. APHA-AWWA-WPCF : Standard Methods 19th ed. American Public Health Association, 1995.
  14. Park, J. E., Kim, S. D., Cho, J. R., Kim, S. H., Lee, H. J. and Lee, Y. O. : Comparative studies on detecting methods of fecal indicators (Coliforms) in surface water. Journal of Korean Society on Water Quality, 22(6), 1052-1059, 2006.
  15. Chu, D. S., Kwon, H. K., Lee, S. E. and Lee, J. H. : A study on indicator bacteria for water quality management of urban artificial lakes. Korean Journal of Environmental Health, 33(4), 299-305, 2007. https://doi.org/10.5668/JEHS.2007.33.4.299
  16. Park, J. E., Kim, S. D., Cho, J. R., Kim, S. H., Lee, H. J. and Lee, Y. O. : Comparative studies on detecting methods of fecal indicators (Coliforms) in surface water. Journal of Korean Society on Water Quality, 22(6), 1052-1059, 2006.
  17. Park, H. J. : Relationships between physicochemical characteristics and microorganisms in Goggyochun stream basin. Graduate School of Hoseo University, 2003.
  18. Jang, H. J. and Lee, Y. W. : A study on investigation of fecal contamination indicator bacteria for management of source water quality. Korean Journal of Environmental Health, 29(1), 19-27, 2003.
  19. Korea Food & Drug Administration : Standardization of Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing, 2005.
  20. Kim, Y. J., Chung, M. H., Chung, D. Y. and Lee, H. Y. : Seasonal distribution of microorganisms in the effluent water in various sewage treatment plants. Journal of KORRA, 16(1), 53-61, 2008.
  21. U.S EPA : Microbial Source Tracking Guise Document, 2005.
  22. Geldreich, E. E., Kenner, B. A. and Kabler, P. W. : Occurrence of coliforms, fecal coliforms, and fecal streptococci on vegetation and insects. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 12(1), 63-69, 1964.
  23. Asan City : Asan Statistical Yearbook. 188-191, 2007.
  24. Bae, M. S., Choi, G. G., Park, S. H., Choi, M. S. and Lee, K. H. : Annual population variation and identification of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the lower lake Geum-gang. Korean Journal of Ecology, 27(5), 283-289, 2004. https://doi.org/10.5141/JEFB.2004.27.5.283
  25. Lee, K. S. : $\beta$-Lactamase expression patterns of ampicillin resistant bacteria Isolated from Kum river area. Korean Journal of Environmental Biology, 12(1), 13-24, 1994.
  26. National Veterinary Research & Quarantine Service : Monitoring of antimicrobial resistance on the foodanimals and meats. 2007.
  27. National Institute of Environmental Research : Development of Analytical Method and Study of Exposure of Pharmaceuticals Environment, 2006.
  28. Alcaide, E. and Garay, E. : R-plasmid transfer in Salmonella spp. isolated from wastewater ad sewagecontaminated surface water. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 48, 435-438, 1984.
  29. Lee, K. H. and Lee, K. C. : Seasonal characteristics of heterotrophic bacteria and antibiotics resistance pattern in the lower Mankyung river. Korean Journal of Limnology, 26, 51-57, 1993.

Cited by

  1. Distribution of Antibiotic Resistant Escherichia coli and Water Quality in Waterscape Facilities vol.40, pp.3, 2014, https://doi.org/10.5668/JEHS.2014.40.3.225

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 호서대학교