A Study on the Correlation and Concentration in Volatile Organic Compounds(Benzene, Toluene, Xylene) Levels According to the Indoor/Outdoor and the Type of Residents' House in Industrial Area

공단지역 일부 주민들의 주택유형 및 실내/외에 따른 VOCs(Benzene, Toluene, Xylene) 농도 및 상관성에 관한 연구

Lee, Che-Won;Jeon, Hye-Li;Hong, Eun-Ju;Yu, Seung-Do;Kim, Dae-Sun;Son, Bu-Soon

  • Received : 2010.07.26
  • Accepted : 2010.10.20
  • Published : 2010.10.31


The objectives of this study were to understand the characteristics of residents in industrial areas and factors affecting exposure to the Volatile Organic Compounds(VOCs : Benzene, Toluene, Xylene) as well as to assess exposure levels according to house-type, and whether residents were indoors or outdoors. This research was designed to assess the differences in exposure levels to indoor, outdoor and personal VOCs in a case group and a control group across all areas, as well as in each different area, from May to October 2007, in. 110 residents of the G, Y and H industrial areas of the Jun-nam province. The geometric mea-levels of airborne benzene for the case group 1.31part per billion(ppb) indoor, 1.29 ppb outdoor, and 1.32 ppb for personal exposure were significantly higher than for the control group 0.99, 0.87 and 0.57 ppb, respectively. The geometric mean level for toluene personal exposure across the G, Y and H areas was 5.70 ppb for the case group and 6.31 ppb for the control group. While the outdoor level was 4.27 ppb for the case group and 5.06 ppb for the control group, The indoor level for the case group was 4.78 ppb, similar to that of the control group 4.69 ppb. The geometric mean levels for airborne xylene across the G, Y and H areas were 0.16 ppb(outdoor), 0.12 ppb(personal exposure) and 0.10 ppb(indoor) for the case group, and for the control group were 0.17(personal exposure) and 0.09 ppb(indoor and outdoor). The indoor/outdoor(I/O) ratio for case group is 1.19, while that of the control group is 1.15, indicating that the indoor level was higher than the outdoor level. The interrelationship differences among the three different types of levels in the air in the G, Y and H areas are statistically significant, except for the difference between the indoor and outdoor figures for xylene. In terms of the different types of houses and energy type uesd, the geometric mean level for airborne benzene, toluene and xylene for houses were 1.61, 5.39 and 0.12 ppb, respectively. while the figures for flats were 0.67, 3.32 and 0.05 ppb, respectively. Outdoors, the levels of benzene and toluene in flats were 0.71 and 2.62 ppb, respectively. and 1.58 and 5.35 ppb in houses. For personal exposure, the house levels of benzene, toluene and xylene were all higher than for flats. Houses using oil for heating have significantly higher levels than flats, which use gas for heating.


VOCs;personal exposure;control;case;geometric mean


  1. Jia, C., Batterman, S. and Godwin, C. : VOCs in industrial, urban and suburban neighborhoods, part 1 : indoor and oudoor concentrations, variation, and risk drivers. Atmospheric Environment, 42, 2083-2100, 2008.
  2. Adgate, J. L., Eberly, L. E., Stroebel, C., Pellizzari, E. D. and Sexton, K. : Personal, indoor, and outdoor VOC exposures in a probability sample of children. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology, 14(Suppl. 1), S4-S13, 2004.
  3. Edwards, R.D., Schweizer, C., Llacqu, V., Lai, H. K., Jantunen, M., Bayer-Oglesby, L. and Kunzli, N. : Time-activity relationships to VOC personal exposure factors. Atmospheric Environment, 40(29), 5685-5700, 2006.
  4. Jurvelin, J., Edwards, R., Saarela, K., Laine-Ylijoki, J., De Bortoli, M., Oglesby, L., Schlapfer, K., Georgoulis, L., Tischerova, E., Hanninen, O. and Jantunen, M. : Evaluation of VOC measurements in the EXPOLIS study. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 3(1), 159-165, 2001.
  5. Ministry of Environment : White Paper of Environment, 2006.
  6. Ministry of Environment : Air Pollution Survey at 2005, Atomospheric Conservation Bureau, Atmospheric Policy Dinision.
  7. Philip, F. and Rein, O : Assessment of the influence of climatic factors on concentration levels of volatile organic compounds(VOCs) in canadian homes. Autmospheric Environment, 28, 3581-3586, 1994.
  8. National Institute of Environmental Research, A study on Personal Exposure assessment by using daily patterns of Time Consumption on Activitis of the Public, 2009.
  9. Fundelli, M. C., Bavazzano, P., Grechi, D., Gorini, G., Miligi, L., Marchese, G., Cenni, I., Scala, D. and Chellini, E. : Benzene exposure in a sample of population residing in a district of Florence. Italy, Sci. Total Environ, 2007.
  10. Egeghy, P. P., Tornero-Velez, R. and Rappaport, S. M. : Environmental and biological monitoring of benzene during self-service automobile refueling. Environmental Health Perspectives, 108(12), 1195-1202, 2000.
  11. Scneider, P., Gebefugi, I., Richter, K., Wolke, G., Schnelle, J., Wichmann, H. E. and Heinrich, J. : Indoor and outdoor BTX levels in German cities. Science of the Total Environment, 267, 41-45, 2001.
  12. Chatzis, C., Alexopoulos, E. C. and Linos, A. : Indoor and outdoor personal exposure in Athens Greece. Science of the Total Environment, 349, 72-80, 2005.
  13. Yang, W. H., Son, B. S., Park, J. A., Jang, B. K., Pack, W. M., Kim, Y. S., Eo, S. M., Yun, J. S., Ryu, I. C. : Volatile organic compounds concentrations and its personal exposure in lndoor and outdoor environments in Summer. The Korean Environmental Sciences Society, 12(9), 967-976, 2003.
  14. Na, K. S. and Kim, Y. P. : Seasonal characteristics of ambient volatile organic compounds in Seoul, Korea. Atmospheric Environment, 35, 2603-2614, 2001.
  15. Derwent, R. G., Davies, T. J., Delaney, M., Dollard, G. J., Field, R. A., Dumitrean, P., Nason, P. D., Jones, B. M. R. and Pepler, S. A. : Analysis and interpretation of continuous hourly monitoring data for 26 C2-C8 Hydrocarbons at 12 United Kingdom Sites during 1996. Atmospheric Environment, 34, 297-312, 2000.
  16. Mohan Rao, A. M., Pandit, G. G., Sain, P., Sharma, S., Krishnamoorthy, T. M. and Nambi, K. S. V. : Non-methane hydrocarbons in industrial locations of Bombay. Atmospheric Environment, 31(7), 1077-1085.
  17. Son, B., Breysse, P. and Yang, W. : Volatile organic compounds concentrations in residential indoor and outdoor and its personal exposure in Korea. Environmental International, 29, 79-85, 2003.
  18. Health Effects Institute/National Urban Air Toxics Research Center : Boston, MA/Houston, TX. Available from:, 2007.
  19. Jutta Begerow, Erich Jermann, Turkan Keles and Lothar Dunemann : Performance of two different types of Passive sampler for GC/ECD_FID determination of environmental VOC level in air. Fresenius Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 363(4), 399-403, 1999.
  20. Kim, J. C. : Application of risk assessment for establishment of the standard of HAPs in new/old apartments. HanYang University Graduate School, 2005.
  21. Edwards, R. D. : VOCs concentrations measured in personal samples and residential indoor, outdoor and workplace microenvironments in EXPOLIS-Helsinki, Finland. Atmospheric Environment, 35, 4531-4543, 2001.
  22. WHO : Guidelines for Air Quality, Geneva, 190, 2000.
  23. ATSDR : Toxicological profile information sheet. Agency for Toxic Substances and Diease Registry, Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, USA, 2003.
  24. Jou, H. M., Cho, T. J., Yang, W. H., Lee, J. H. and Son, B. S. : Lead levels in blood of residents in industrial area. Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, 35(2), 86-94, 2009.
  25. Filella, I. and Penuelas, J. : Weekly and seasonal time courses of VOC concentrations in a semi-urban area near barcelona. Atmospheric Environment, 40, 7752-7769, 2006.
  26. Karakitsios, S. P., Delis, V. K., Kassomenos, P. A. and Pilidis, G. A. : Contribution to ambient benzene concentrations in the vicinity of petrol stations. Estimation of the associated health risk. Atmospheric Environment, 41(9), 1889-1902, 2007.
  27. Kim, Y. H. : Contribution of Job Exposure to Volatile Organic Compounds and Nitrogen Dioxide for Iron Mill Workers in Total Exposure Assessment. Catholic University of Daegu Graduate School, 2007.
  28. Jeon, J. M., Hur, D., Ko, O. S. and Kim, D. S. : Measurement and concentration trend of VOCs in the ambient Yeosu industrial area. Journal of Korean for Society for Atmospheric Environment, 19(6), 663-677, 2003.
  29. US EPA : Integrated Risk Information System(IRIS) Substance List Website. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of research and development, National Cancer for Environmental Assessment, USA, 2004.


Supported by : 인제연구장학재단