Construction of an Exposure Matrix Using a Risk Assessment of Industries and Processes Involving Dichloromethane

작업환경측정 자료를 활용한 Dichloromethane 노출 매트릭스 구축에 대한 연구

  • Received : 2010.07.20
  • Accepted : 2010.10.25
  • Published : 2010.10.31


A reduction in risk of occupational exposure to chemical hazards within the workplace has been the focus of attention both through industry initiatives and legislation. The aims of this study were to develop an exposure matrix by industry and process, and to apply this matrix to control the risk of occupational exposure to Dichloromethane (DCM). The exposure matrix is a tool to convert information on industry and process into information on occupational risk. The exposure matrix comprised industries and processes involving DCM, based on an exposure database provided by KOSHA (the Korean Occupational Safety and Health Agency), which was gathered from a workplace hazards evaluation program in Korea. The risk assessment of the exposure matrix was performed using Hallmark risk assessment tool. The results of the risk assessment were indicated by a Danger Value (DV) calculated from the combination of hazard rating (HR), duration of use rating (DUR), and risk probability rating (RPR) of exposure to the chemical, and were divided into four control bands which were related to control measures. The applicability of the risk assessment of the exposure matrix was evaluated by a field study, and survey of the employees of the exposure matrix groups. Among 45 industries examined, this study found that greater attention should be paid to two industries: the manufacture of other optical instruments and photographic equipment, and the manufacture of printing ink, and to one process among 47 examined, the packing process in the manufacture of printing ink, because these were regarded as carrying the highest risk. This tool of a risk assessment for the exposure matrix can be applied as a general exposure information system for hazard control, risk quantification, setting the occupational exposure limit, and hazard surveillance. The exposure matrix includes workforce data, and it provides information on the numbers of exposed workers in Korea by agent, occupation, and level of exposure and risk.


dichloromethane;JEM (Job Exposure matrix);risk assessment;hallmark risk assessment


  1. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, "Dichloromethane", Public Health Goals for Chemicals in Drinking Water, California Environmental Protection Agency, Available from (URL):, 2009.
  2. Ministry of Environment, PRTR (Pollutant Release and Transfer Registers), Available from (URL) :, 2009.
  3. Rioux, J. and Myers, R. : Methylene chloride poisoning: a paradigmatic review. Journal of Emergency Medical 6(3), 227-238, 1988.
  4. Fagin, J., Bradley, J., Williams, D. : Carbon monoxide poisoning secondary to inhaling methylene chloride. British Medical Jounal 281(6253), 1461, 1980.
  5. Kobayashi, A., Ando, A., Tagami, N. and Kitagawa, M. : Severe optic neuropathy caused by dichloromethane inhalation, Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 24(6), 607-612, 2008.
  6. Cordes, D. H., Brown, W. D. and Quinn, K. M. : Chemically induced hepatitis after inhaling organic solvents. The Western Journal of Medicine 148(4), 458-460, 1988.
  7. Wells, G. and Waldron, H. : Methylene chloride burns. British Journal of Industrial Medicine 41(3), 420, 1984.
  8. Bell, B., Franks, P., Hildreth, N. and Melius, J. : Methylene chloride exposure and birthweight in Monroe County, New York. Environmental Research 55(1), 31-39, 1991.
  9. USDHHS (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services), Toxicological Profile for Methylene Chloride, Available from(URL):, Retrieved 2006-09-10, 2006.
  10. IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer), Lists of IARC Evaluations; Available from (URL): 004-dichloromethane.html, 2010.
  11. Ministry of Employment and Labor, Occupational Exposure Limits for Chemical and Physical Hazard, Ministry of Employment and Labor Standard No. 2010-44, 2010.
  12. Statistics Korea, Korean Standard Industrial Classification(KSIC), 9th revision, 2001.
  13. Benke, G., Sim, M., Frinchi, L. and Aldred, G. : Beyond the job exposure matrix (JEM): the task exposure matrix (TEM). The Annals of Occupational Hygiene 44, 475-482, 2000.
  14. AIHA (American Industrial Hygiene Association), Hallmark Risk Assessment Tool in Guidance for Conducting Control Banding Analysis, AIHA, 2007.
  15. Hass, J. M. : Industrial hygiene ABCs. Professional Safety 50(3), 38-41, 2005.
  16. Ha, K. C. : A study on Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) in Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) at indoor office environments. Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Health, 27(3), 1-112, 2001.
  17. Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency (KOSHA), Application of Matrix and Risk Assessment of Industries, Processes, and Job, Research Report, 2008.
  18. Rossberg, M. : "Chlorinated Hydrocarbons" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2006.
  19. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists ACGIH), 2010 TLVs & BEIs, threshold limit values for chemical substances and physical agents and biological exposure indices, ISBN 978-1-882417-79-7, 2010.
  20. OSHA(Occupational Safety and Health Administration), Occupational Safety and Health Standards, Standard No. 1910.1052, Available from(URL):, 2010.
  21. Pukkla, E., Guo, J., Kyyronen, P., Lindbohm, M. L., Sallmem, M. and Kauppinen, T. : National job-exposure matrix in analysis of census-basedestimates of occupational cancer risk. Scandinavian Journal of Work Environmental Health 31(2), 97-107, 2005.


Supported by : 한국산업안전보건연구원