DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Synthesis of Expanded Graphite-Titanium Oxide Composite and its Photocatalytic Performance

  • Oh, Won-Chun ;
  • Choi, Jong-Geun ;
  • Zhang, Feng-Jun ;
  • Go, Yu-Gyoung ;
  • Chen, Ming-Liang
  • Received : 2009.03.23
  • Accepted : 2009.04.12
  • Published : 2010.05.31

Abstract

In this study, an expanded graphite-titanium oxide composite is developed from expanded graphite (EG) and titanium n-butoxide (TNB). EG is synthesized by chemical intercalation of natural graphite (NG) and rapid expansion at high temperature. TNB is used as the titanium source. The performances of the prepared EG-$TiO_2$ composite are characterized by BET surface area measurements, scan electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The catalytic activities of the EG-$TiO_2$ composite are investigated by analysis of the degradation of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution under irradiation of UV light. Compared with the pristine $TiO_2$ and activity carbon-$TiO_2$ (AC-$TiO_2$) composite, the EG-$TiO_2$ composite shows very high efficiency against MB solution, and the EG could improve the photocatalytic effect of $TiO_2$ in the MB degradation reaction under the irradiation of UV light.

Keywords

Expanded graphite;Titanium n-butoxide;Photocatalysis;Methylene blue

References

  1. H. Marsh, “Introduction to Carbon Science,” pp. 45-55, Butterworths, London, 1989.
  2. H. O.Pierso, “Handbook of Carbons, Graphite Diamond, and Fullerences,” pp. 105-43, Noyes Publication, Park Ridge, 1993.
  3. H. K. Chae, D. Y. Siberio-Perez, J. Kim, Y. Go, M. Eddaoudi, A. J. Matzger, M. O. Keeffe, and O. M.Yaghi, “Tertiary Building Units: Synthesis, Structure, and Porosity of a Metal-organic Dendrimer Framework (MODF-1),” Nature, 427 523-27 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1038/nature02311
  4. D. D. L.Chung, “Review: Exfoliation of Graphite,” J. Mater. Sci., 22 4190-98 (1987). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01132008
  5. F. Kang, T. Y. Zhang, and Y. Leng, “Electrochemical Behavior Graphite in Electrolyte of Sulfuric and Acetic Acid,” Carbon, 35 1167-73 (1997). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0008-6223(97)00097-3
  6. G. H. Chen, D. J. Wu, W. C. Weng, B. He, and W. L. Yan, “Preparation of Polystyrene–graphite Conducting Nanocomposites Via Intercalation Polymerization,” Polym. Int., 50 980-85 (2001). https://doi.org/10.1002/pi.729
  7. M. Toyada and M. Inagaki, “Heavy Oil Sorption using Exfoliated Graphite New Application of Exfoliated Graphite to Protect Heavy Oil Pollution,” Carbon, 38 199-210 (2000). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0008-6223(99)00174-8
  8. A. Celzard, J. F. Mareche, G. Furdin, and S.Puricelli, “Electrical Conductivity of Anisotropic Expanded Graphitebased Monoliths,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys., 33 3094-101 (2000). https://doi.org/10.1088/0022-3727/33/23/313
  9. F. A. Cotton and G.Wilkinson, “Advanced Inorganic Chemistry,” 5thed. New York: John Wiley Sons, Inc., 654-55 (1988).
  10. A. Fujishima and K. Honda, “Electrochemical Photolysis of WATer at a Semiconductor Electrode,” Nature, 238 37-8 (1972). https://doi.org/10.1038/238037a0
  11. T. Kawai and T. Sakata, “Conversion of Carbohydrate Into Hydrogen Fuel by a Photocatalytic Process,” Nature, 286 474-76 (1980). https://doi.org/10.1038/286474a0
  12. B. O’Regan and M. Gra¨tzel, “A Low Cost and High Efficiency Solar Cell Based on Dye-sensitized Coloidal $TiO_2$ films,” Nature, 353 737-40 (1991). https://doi.org/10.1038/353737a0
  13. C. J. Barbe, F. Arendse, P. Comte, M. Jirousek, F.Lenzmann, and V. Shklover, “Nanocrystalline Titanium Oxide Electrodes for Photovoltaic Applications,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 80 3157-71 (1997).
  14. A. Mills and S. LeHunte, “An Overview of Semiconductor Photocatalysis,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A, 108 1-35 (1997). https://doi.org/10.1016/S1010-6030(97)00118-4
  15. A. Fujishima, T. N. Rao, and D. A. Tryk, “$TiO_2$ Photocatalysts and Diamond Electrodes,” Electrochim. Acta, 45 4683-90 (2000). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0013-4686(00)00620-4
  16. G. Dagan and M. Tomkiewicz, “$TiO_2$ Aerogels for Photocatalytic Decontamination of Aquatic Environments,” J. Phys. Chem., 97 12651-55 (1993). https://doi.org/10.1021/j100151a001
  17. G. Dagan and M. Tomkiewicz, “Preparation and Characterization of $TiO_2$ Aerogels for use as Photocatalysts,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 175 294-302 (1994). https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-3093(94)90023-X
  18. D. Robert, S. Parra, C. Pulgarin, A. Krzton, and J. V. Weber, “Chemisorption of Phenols and Acids on $TiO_2$ Surface,” Appl. Surf. Sci., 167 51-8 (2000). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-4332(00)00496-7
  19. Z. H. Zhang, Y. Yuan, L. H. Liang, Y. J. Fang, T. X. Cheng, and H. C. Ding, “Sonophotoelectrocatalytic Degradation of Azo Dye on $TiO_2$ Nanotube Electrode,” Ultrason. Sonochem., 15 370-75 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2007.09.017
  20. M. L. Chen, J. S. Bae, and W. C. Oh, “Photocatalytic Effect for the Pitch-coated $TiO_2$,” Analytical Science & Technology, 19 301-8 (2006).
  21. M. L. Chen, C. S. Lim, and W. C. Oh, “Preparation with Different Mixing Ratios of Anatase to Activated Carbon and Their Photocatalytic Performance,” J. Cer. Proc. Res., 8 119-24 (2007).
  22. M. L. Chen, Y. S. Ko, and W. C. Oh, “Carbon/$TiO_2$ Prepared from Anatase to Pitch and Their Photocatalytic Performance,” Carbon Sci., 8 6-11(2007).
  23. M. Inagaki, Y. Hirose, T. Matsunage, T. Tsumura, and M. Toyoda, “Carbon Coating of Anatase-type $TiO_2$ Through Their Precipitation in PVA Aqueous Solution,” Carbon, 41 2619-24 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0008-6223(03)00340-3
  24. M. L. Chen, J. S. Bae, and W. C. Oh, “Prepared of Carboncoated $TiO_2$ at Different Heat Treatment Temperatures and Their Photoactivity,” Carbon Sci., 7 259-65 (2006).
  25. M. L. Chen, J. S. Bae, and W. C. Oh, “Photocatalytic Effect for the Carbon-coated $TiO_2$ Prepared from Different Heat Treatment Temperature,” Analytical Science & Technology, 19 460-67 (2006).
  26. M. A. Barakat,Y. T. Chen, and C. P. Huang, “Removal of Toxic Cyanide and Cu(II) Ions from Water by Illuminated $TiO_2$ Catalyst,” Appl. Catal. B Environ., 53 13-20 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2004.05.003
  27. M. A. Barakat, H. Schaeffer, G. Hayes, and S. Ismat-Shah, “Photocatalytic Degradation of 2-chlorophenol by Co-doped $TiO_2$ Nanoparticles,” Appl. Catal. B Environ., 57 23-30 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2004.10.001