- Volume 4 Issue 1
DOI QR Code
Reliable Data Transmission Based on Erasure-resilient Code in Wireless Sensor Networks
- Lei, Jian-Jun (Department of Computer and Information Engineering Inha University) ;
- Kwon, Gu-In (Department of Computer and Information Engineering Inha University)
- Published : 2010.02.27
Emerging applications with high data rates will need to transport bulk data reliably in wireless sensor networks. ARQ (Automatic Repeat request) or Forward Error Correction (FEC) code schemes can be used to provide reliable transmission in a sensor network. However, the naive ARQ approach drops the whole frame, even though there is a bit error in the frame and the FEC at the bit level scheme may require a highly complex method to adjust the amount of FEC redundancy. We propose a bulk data transmission scheme based on erasure-resilient code in this paper to overcome these inefficiencies. The sender fragments bulk data into many small blocks, encodes the blocks with LT codes and packages several such blocks into a frame. The receiver only drops the corrupted blocks (compared to the entire frame) and the original data can be reconstructed if sufficient error-free blocks are received. An incidental benefit is that the frame error rate (FER) becomes irrelevant to frame size (error recovery). A frame can therefore be sufficiently large to provide high utilization of the wireless channel bandwidth without sacrificing the effectiveness of error recovery. The scheme has been implemented as a new data link layer in TinyOS, and evaluated through experiments in a testbed of Zigbex motes. Results show single hop transmission throughput can be improved by at least 20% under typical wireless channel conditions. It also reduces the transmission time of a reasonable range of size files by more than 30%, compared to a frame ARQ scheme. The total number of bytes sent by all nodes in the multi-hop communication is reduced by more than 60% compared to the frame ARQ scheme.
- R. E. Azouzi, T. Peyre, and A. Benslimane, "Optimal design of hybrid fec/arq schemes for real-time applications in wireless networks," in Proc. of the 2nd ACM international workshop on Wireless multimedia networking and performance modeling, pp.11-18, Oct. 2006.
- J. Paek and R. Govindan, "Rcrt: rate-controlled reliable transport for wireless sensor networks," in Proc. of the 5th international conference on Embedded networked sensor systems, pp.305-319, 2007.
- D. A. Eckhardt and P. Steenkiste, "A trace-based evaluation of adaptive error correction for a wireless local area network," Mobile Networks and Applications, vol.4, no.4, pp.273-287, Dec. 1999. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1019163202314
- M. Kobayashi and G. Caire, "A low-complexity approach to space-time coding for multipath fading channels," EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, vol.5, no.3, pp.437-446, Aug. 2005.
- G. Ferrari, P. Medagliani, S. D. Piazza, and M. Martal, "Wireless sensor networks: performance analysis in indoor scenarios," EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, vol. 2007, no.1, Jan. 2007.
- P. Lettieri, C. Schurgers, and M. Srivastava, "Adaptive link layer strategies for energy efficient wireless networking," Wireless Networks, vol.5, no.5, pp.339-355, Oct. 1999. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1019123700246
- G. Bianchi, F. Formisano, and D. Giustiniano, "802.11b/g link level measurements for an outdoor wireless campus network," in Proc. of the 2006 International Symposium on World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks, pp.525-530, 2006.
- H. Dubois-Ferriere, D. Estrin, and M. Vetterli, "Packet combining in sensor networks," in Proc. of ACM Sen-Sys 2005, Nov. 2005.
- A. P. Jardosh, K. N. Ramachandran, K. C. Almeroth, and E. M. Belding-Royer, "Understanding link-layer behavior in highly congested ieee 802.11b wireless networks," in Proc. of SIGCOMM Workshop on Experimental Approaches to Wireless Network Design and Analysis (E-WIND), pp.11-16, Aug. 2005.
- A. K. Miu, H. Balakrishnan, and C.E. Koksal, "Improving loss resilience with multi-radio diversity in wireless networks," in Proc. of ACM MobiCom 2005, pp.16-30, Sep. 2005.
- M. Chen, G. Wei, "Multi-Stages Hybrid ARQ with Conditional Frame Skipping and Reference Frame Selecting Scheme for Real-Time Video Transport Over Wireless LAN," IEEE Transaction on Consumer Electronics, vol. 50, no.1, pp.158-167, Feb. 2004. https://doi.org/10.1109/TCE.2004.1277856
- M. Luby, M. Mitzenmacher, A. Shokrollahi, and D. Spielman, "Efficient erasure correcting codes," IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, vol. 47, no. 2, pp.569-584, Feb. 2001. https://doi.org/10.1109/18.910575
- M. Luby, "LT codes," in Proc. of The 43rd Annual IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, 2002.
- P. Maymounkov and D. Mazi`eres, "Rateless Codes and Big Downloads," in Proc. of Int'l Workshop on Peer-to-peer Systems (IPTPS), 2003.
- T. T. E. Hyyti and J. Virtamo, "Optimizing the degree distribution of lt codes with an importance sampling approach," in Proc. of RESIM, Oct. 2006.
- J. S. Ahn, S. W. Hong, and J. Heidemann, "An adaptive fec code control algorithm for mobile wireless sensor networks," Journal of Communications and Networks, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 489-499, 2005. https://doi.org/10.1109/JCN.2005.6387991
- K. Jamieson and H. Balakrishnan, "Ppr: partial packet recovery for wireless networks," in Proc. of ACM SIGCOMM, vol. 37, no .4, pp. 409-420, Oct' 2007.
- D. Chase, "Code combining: A maximum-likelihood decoding approach for combining an arbitrary number of noisy packets," IEEE Trans. on Comm., vol.33, no.5, pp. 385-393, May 1985. https://doi.org/10.1109/TCOM.1985.1096314
- J. Metzner, "Improvements in block-retransmission schemes," IEEE Trans. on Comm., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 524-532, Feb. 1979. https://doi.org/10.1109/TCOM.1979.1094392
- S. Lin and P.S. Yu, "A hybrid arq scheme with parity retransmission for error control of satellite channels," IEEE Trans. on Comm., vol. 30, no. 7, pp. 1701-1719, July 1982. https://doi.org/10.1109/TCOM.1982.1095643
- R. Ganti, P. Jayachandran, H. Luo, and T. Abdelzaher, "Datalink streaming in wireless sensor networks," in Proc. of ACM SenSys, Nov. 2006.
- D. Skordoulis, Q. Ni, H. H. Chen, A. P. Stephens, C. Liu, and A. Jamalipour, "IEEE 802.11n MAC frame aggregation mechanisms for next-generation high-throughput WLANs," IEEE Wireless Comm., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 40-47, 2008.
- K. l. Blackard, T. S. Rappaport, and C. W. Bostian, "Measurements and models of radio frequency impulsive noise for indoor wireless communications," IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 991-1001, Sep.1993. https://doi.org/10.1109/49.233212
- D. Echhard and P. Steenkiste, "Measurement and analysis of the error characteristic of in-building wireless network," in Proc. of ACM SIGCOMM, pp. 243-254, Aug. 1996.
- H. Karl and A. Willig, "Protocols and architectures for wireless sensor networks," John Wiley and Sons Ltd, 2005.
- J. R. Yee and E. J. Weldon, Jr., "Evaluation of the performance of error-correcting codes on a gilbert channel," IEEE Tran. on Comm., vol. 43, no. 8, Aug. 1995.