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Formation and Physical Properties of Yogurt

  • Lee, W.J. (Department of Animal Bioscience (Institute of Agriculture and Life Science), Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Lucey, J.A. (Department of Food Science, University of Wisconsin-Madison)
  • Published : 2010.09.01

Abstract

Yogurt gels are a type of soft solid, and these networks are relatively dynamic systems that are prone to structural rearrangements. The physical properties of yogurt gels can be qualitatively explained using a model for casein interactions that emphasizes a balance between attractive (e.g., hydrophobic attractions, casein cross-links contributed by calcium phosphate nanoclusters and covalent disulfide cross-links between caseins and denatured whey proteins) and repulsive (e.g., electrostatic or charge repulsions, mostly negative at the start of fermentation) forces. Various methods are discussed to investigate the physical and structural attributes of yogurts. Various processing variables are discussed which influence the textural properties of yogurts, such as total solids content, heat treatment, and incubation temperatures. A better understanding of factors contributing to the physical and structural attributes may allow manufacturers to improve the quality of yogurt.

Keywords

Yogurt;Rheology;Whey Separation;Microstructure

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